Chapter 10 Review
Allah: (264) The one true god in the Muslim faith. Allah was well known of before Muhammad began the Islamic religion, however, Allah was not the only god worshipped prior to the start of the Islamic faith.
Muhammad: (264) He was born into a wealthy family in Mecca but after a few bad events had personal struggles. Later he was visited by the angel Gabriel who spoke to him about the word of Allah. Later spread this word as the first prophet and started the Islamic faith.
Islam: (265) This literally means “the submission to the will of Allah.”
Muslim: (265) This means “one who has submitted,” to the will of Allah.
Mosque: (267) An Islamic house of worship.
Hajj: (267) Pilgrimage to Mecca that all Muslims must take in their life time.
Qur’an: (267) The Muslim Holy Book.
Sunna: (268) This is Muhammad’s example. The rightly guided path.
Shari’a: (268) This is the body of Islamic law that all Muslims follow.
Caliph: (269) This is the title of the successor or deputy that guides all Muslims. The first was Abu-Bakr a loyal friend of Muhammad.
Sunni: (271) These Muslims believe the Caliph should follow Muhammad’s example or “Sunna.”
Shi’a: (271) These Muslims believe the Caliph should be a direct descendent of Muhammad.
Review Questions (Ch 10)
Why was Mecca an important city in western Arabia? (263-265) Mecca was an important trading city and religious center. Many travelers and traders stopped here to worship and trade their goods.
What are the five pillars of Islam? Give a full description of each. (267) The five pillars of Islam are five duties all Muslims must perform. They include:
Faith: The belief in Allah, the one true god;
Prayer: Muslims must pray five times a day facing Mecca;
Alms: Giving to the poor or less fortunate.;
Pilgrimage: Performing the “hajj” to Mecca at least once in a life time;
Fasting: Demonstrating that spiritual needs are greater than physical needs.
Why did Muslims consider Christians and Jews “People of the Book?” (268) Both faiths had a religious book that gave the word of God.
How did Muslims under the “rightly guided” caliphs treat conquered peoples? (270) They treated the conquered people with tolerance.
How did Muslim scholars help preserve the knowledge of the ancient Greeks and Romans? (276) One way was the creation of the House of Wisdom. Here Muslim scholars translated works from Latin, Greek and many other cultures into Arabic for further study. When often texts had been destroyed during conflicts, the Muslims created a safe place for all the texts to be preserved for future generations.
What were some of the Muslim contributions in medicine, mathematics and astronomy? (You must give an example of each.) (278) The Muslim contributions include: for medicine a medical text book, the understanding of clean air and the danger of germs; for mathematics the first Algebra text book and for astronomy, better optics, and charting the stars.
Review Terms/Questions (Ch 11)
What is the Justinian Code? (302) The Justinian Code was the modification and updating of old Roman laws that no longer worked well. Emperor Justinian and some scholars went through all the Roman laws and updated them to apply to the present day society of the old empire.
Why did the Christian church split into two different forms of Christianity? (306)
There were many religious doctrines that were disagreed on by many religious and political leaders. Ultimately, two religious figures tried to excommunicate each other which led to the creation of two separate churches in the Christian religion.
What main demands did the Mongols make on their Russian subjects? (310) They demanded obedience and massive amounts of tribute. (Gold.)
Review Terms/Questions (Ch 12)
Shogun: (343) “Supreme General of the Emperor’s army.” Had powers of a military dictator.
Samurai: (343) They lived according to a code of honor, or “Bushido.” Similar to a