A growing number of people from the Atlantic coast and the Western regions had adopted Islamic tradition. Muslim travelers of the pre-modern period provided evidence of ideas, patterns and institutions found wherever Muslims were in large numbers. These showed patterns were represented in cities by populations of scholars, merchants and in government officials. A Spanish Muslim from Granada produced work on which later their writer’s especially depended on. He referred to the web of mosques sufi centers and religious colleges he visited on his journey across the Islamic world.
The Islamic world can sometimes be used to connote unity, shared experiences and homogeneity. These institutions and patterns of behavior shared among them encouraged togetherness and cooperation. Alongside these however were other deep rooted principles both local and regional that differed. The origins of this community include great diversity, interpretation and practice. As it encompassed local cultures in Africa, South East Asia and across the Asia Steppes Its diversity multiplied. The mamluks overthrew the Ayyubid princes since they were much like their Seljuk predecessors. The Ayyubid dynasty was founded by Salah al’Din. They struggled to achieve central authority and often used the money they generated from extensive land grants and networks of loyalty and patronage to exploit their weaker counter parts- Ayyubids and assert authority over them at the local level. The mamluks ruled Egypt, Syria, and the Hizhz for over 250 years and collapsed with the automan invasion of Egypt. The mamluks were slaves soldiers that were acquired to boldster the armed forces of the Ayyubid rulers. They relied on them for their fighting power thus assumed a predominantly military role. The mamluks were recruits Turks or Circassians. This regiem was the first to acquire full control of government. The durability of the mamluks was attributed to several factors. Firstly its flourishing economy was based on agricultural production, control over the east west pilgrimage roots and extensive participations in the trade the connected the Indian ocean and the Medditeranean regions. TRhe prosperity of the Mamluk period was reflected in rapid growth and wealth of Cairo. They also presented a stable hier archival form of government. That was able to withstand the periodic fightings. Loyalty was a matter of personal preference rather than mandatory.
The military elite were supported by a combination of two physical statements, the land concession-IQTA. This was an agreement by which the recipient agreed to provide military forces in exchange for revenue generated by the lands assigned to him. The second pillar of the Mamluk was taxation-They relied on skilles bureaucrat and kept a close eye on the collection and distribution of tax revenue.
The success of Mamluk’s rule was linked to the creation of lasting ties to the sunni religious establishment. Salah Al’Dins triumph over the Fatimid state and the collapse of Isma’ili , Shi’ite institutionalize in Egypt had opened the way to the rapid spread of Sunni law, education, and ritual practice.
The Mamluk elite intern followed the examples of the Seljuqs and ayyubids in doing a great deal to promote Sunni Islam. The Mamluks were outsiders like the Seljuqs who arrived near east assorted nomads. Their ethnicity differed, their language varied, and so did their level of professionalism. They were quick to recognize effective govenrnunts, involve in support of the religious establishments regularly participated in the hajj andf other forms of pilgrimage. Man established close ties to the influential suffis and suffi groups. The ayyubids had provided whit patronage for the construction of mosques, madrasas, tomb complexes and khanaqas, the lodges used by suffi for education