Summary: In this article, the author , Reschel provided some background information about corruption in MENA region, and it influence in institutions and society. He gave some example of nations that have combat corruption from their regimes. However, he indicated overview of corruption over the world in order to compare to corrupt rate in MENA. Besides, Reschel link the culture and religion to spread corruption in these nations, and illustrated the Transparency International Index in some countries, for instance, Yemen, Syria, Iraq and Iran are ranged in the bottom of the listsm and just above Myanmar and Somalia. Otherwise, he discussed about some Initiatives and effort that have been taken in order to reduce the corruption in MENA such as signing of the United Nation anti-Corruption, and establish an independent ant-corruption commission.
Although this article was published five years old, it has value and useful knowledge about MENA corruption. Additionally, it provides few helpful graphics to understand how corruption is rank and control in MENA. The publisher is the World Bank that reflects the trustworthy of this information.
This information is useful for reading and expand my knowledge, but it is old data. I found newer ones that provides same measurements. However, I benefited from this article about efforts and Initiatives that some governments in MENA took for reducing corruption.
Er, M. (2008). Corruption from the Islamic perspective: Some recommendations for the MENA region. International Journal of Islamic and Middle Eastern Finance and Management, 1(1), 31-51.
Summary: the author, Er linked the corruption and Islamic perspective in MENA countries. In the beginning, he briefly demonstrated the consequences of corruption over the world and it cost the world economy more than $2 trillion every year. Furthermore, he tried to figure out the causes of increasing corruption in MENA region which lead the poverty go up even though most countries have natural resources. He argue that because lack of infrastructure and institutional deficiency are causing corruption in the Muslim world. Also, there is evidence that bribes can promote economic development overcoming bureaucracy. He thought that in Muslim