General People groups/Titles
Non Muslim influences
-Were a group of intellectuals highly influenced by Greek philosophy.
-They believed that the Qur’an was not eternal, rather that it was created.
-They believed that an individual had free will (God did not determine all acts).
-A group of mu’tazilites was very popular with one Caliph (al-Ma’mun), he would actually start an inquisition like thing (called the Mihna) where people were forced to swear their belief in such concepts.
Circle of Justice:
-might be a Persian or Chinese idea that the Islamic empire picked up.
-Ruler>people> treasury>army>ruler (no link should be broken in chain)
-The ruler has to be benevolent (can be absolutist, but must respect the people) if that’s not broken people will pay taxes, treasury full can pay army, and army gets paid can expand the empire and remain loyal to the ruler.
-shift east (from Syria to Iraq) and toward Persian culture, new capital in Baghdad.
-reassertion of Persian culture and governing practice/admin procedures. (Ultimately return of pre-Islamic Persian notion of divine right to rule, absolutism and sacral kingship)
-trade directed east (flourishing trade in Asia, cultural influences from China appear.)
-formation of Islamic theology and law (doctrines of different sects develop)
-flourishing of arts and sciences, new Persian Islamic literature.
-appearance of Turks in military ranks and conversion of Turkic tribes in frontier areas
-fragmentation and collapse of political authority of the Caliphate
-emergence of the ulama (a religious class that guides/are custodians to the law
-see the circle of justice, don't break the chain. (Chinese/Persian idea)
-First inquisition, instituted by the Abbasid Caliph al-Ma'mun.
-Religious scholars were punished, imprisoned or even killed unless they conceded the doctrine of the created nature of the Qur'an (that it wasn’t eternal or the word of God).
-Policy lasted for 15 years.
-This caused the Abbasid Caliph to lose a lot of popularity and support.
-In later years a Caliph would institute an opposite policy,
-A member of Uthman’s Umayyad family, he has a stronghold in Damascus having been governor there for 18 years.
-challenged authority of Ali, the conflict between him and Ali will cause the community to be split into 4 factions. -the pro Mu’awiya forces -Neutral (majority, who didn’t want conflict) -The proto-shi’as (supporters of Ali) -The Kharitjites (who split off from Ali, when he compromises with Mu’awiya and see themselves as the only true believers, first extremists)
-by this time the caliph is no longer a companion of the prophet (they have all died)
-Mu’awiya had astounding political sense, oversaw the beginning of the empire/state, wanted unity and to make it peaceful. Appeased a lot of the tribes with money or honours, generally thinking not nepotistic, Arab Christians in Syria became part of government, in administrative positions.
-Mu’awiya appointing his son Yazid resurfaces old imperial ideas, and make the caliphate a dynasty, even though the Qur’an advocated the caliphate being elected by the community.
commander of the faithful’ (Amīr al-Mu’minīn):
-A title created by ‘Umar, more militaristic title, he would launch many military campaigns.
-Judaism and Christianity both stem back to Abraham as their patriarch, through his son Isaac. The Muslims would also trace their people back to Abraham, but through the son (Ismael) he had with his slave girl Hagar. garrison towns (amṣār):
-Were set up outside of conquered cities (so thousands of troops wouldn’t freak out the civilians), as to keep an eye on cities and collect taxes.
-they created a social barrier, distance prevented assimilation, creates sense of Arab superiority