Modern Middle East
December 14, 2011
Modern Middle East Final: Short Answers
United Nations Resolution 242 The United Nations Resolution 242 was a Security Council resolution created on November 22, 1967. It was derived from the 1967 Arab-Israeli War also known as the Six-Day War. This resolution called for five major actions:
1 Israel’s withdrawal from territories occupied during the recent conflict
2 An end to belligerency and respect for the acknowledgment of sovereignty, territorial integrity, and the political independence of every state in the region.
3 The right of all states to live in peace within secure and recognized boundaries free of threats of acts of force.
4 Freedom of navigation through international waterways.
5 A just settlement to the refugee problem.
There was confusion due to the translation in both English and French used by the United Nations. As a result, the Arabs believed the correct translation indicated Israel’s withdrawal from all occupied territories and this action served as a "precondition for establishing peace." In comparison to the Israelis belief that the translation to be "some" of the occupied territories. However the Israelis believed the translation to be all in terms of their navigation through international waterways. United Nations Secretary General, U Thant appointed Dr. Gunnar Jarring as a mediator in the resolution. The ambiguity of the resolution proved the resolution to be ineffective. Since it was ineffective the United Nations issued United Nations Resolution 338, which called for a cease fire in the 1973 War reaffirming the 242 resolution. In spite of these efforts, the region is still struggling through the same issues even today.
Hasan al-Banna Sheikh Hasan Ahmed Abdel Rahman Muhammed al-Banna commonly referred to as Hasan al-Banna, was a Sunni Muslim born October 14, 1906. He was raised in piety in a non-wealthy environment and active in the Sufi order. He was an Imam like his father. Hasan al-Banna received his education at the Dar Al-Ulum in Cairo, Egypt. He saw a moral decline among the Egyptian people and culture, which sparked his inspiration to create the Muslim Brotherhood, one of the largest Islamist party. The Muslim Brotherhood was created in March of 1928, which focused primarily on utilizing the Quran as the as a reference point in maintaining the values of the Muslim community. The Muslim Brotherhood advocated piety and the cleaning-up and reorganization of Egypt through the use of charitable events and gradually building the institution. The more the brotherhood began to evolve, the more it focused on its opposition of British rule. British control of Egypt was blamed for many violent crimes and killings, which was never Hasan al-Banna's intention for the party. In his final speech before his assassination on February 12, 1949, he states "terror is not an acceptable way in Islam”. Although seen as a potential threat from western nations, Hasan al-Banna is known as an inspirational speaker and a spokesperson for modern Islamic thought and was a strong advocate for peaceful negotiations among Muslims Lehi Lehi was a Jewish militia that evolved from the Stern Gang founded by Abraham Stern in Palestine. Stern wrote out a document of “18 Principles of Rebirth” to govern the group with a focal point around three objectives: redemption of land, establishment of sovereignty, and revival of the nation. This Zionist militant group was active prior to, and during World War II, between 1940 and 1949. By then Lehi had a firm foundation in its socialist and anti-imperialist ideals. Strongly focused on anti-British intervention, the group was perhaps most famous for the assassination of Britain’s Minister of State, Lord Moyne on November 6, 1944. Another famous incident that Lehi was responsible for is the attack of Deir Yassin, a small village near Jerusalem. On April 9, 1948, approximately 100 Lehi armed