Italy Project Essay

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Darren Battle & Marcus Innocent
History
Mr.Meli
March 22,2015
Italy
Italy was once before divided up by Napoleon Bonaparte and his allies. But a series of wars and battles made land in Italy divided. In 1815 at the Vienna Congress land in Italy was divided between Austria, Kingdom of Sardinia, Papal states and kingdom of Sicily.
The kingdom of Sardinia gained Piedmont, Nice, Genoa, Savoy, and the Island of
Sardinia. While Austria obtained Lombardy, and Venice. The kingdom of Sicily controlled
Sicily the island and the southern half of the italian peninsula.
Austria had large amounts of land in Italy. All the land was controlled by Austria royalty, the Habsburg family. They had absolute power in the states of Tuscany, Parma, and Modena.
Austria was overall the main power in Italy.
The kingdom of Sardinia wanted to unite all of Italy as one so that Italy would no longer be divided. Giuseppe Mazzini was an patriot who helped with starting the revolution by the
Italian people. There were reforms to slow down the revolution but it sparked across Germany,
Austrian empire, France, and certain places in Northern Italy, This helped the idea of nationalism spread. The goal was to have Italy as one and with an Italian ruler. After it sparked, the first revolutionary act took place in Sicily which resulted in a constitution for the kingdom of Sicily.
The thing that was big, was to fulfill the goal of nationalism. So for that to happen they needed to drive Austria out of Italy. Their first attempt at

war with the Austrians failed the Austrians defeated the king Charles Albert of Sardinia and
Giuseppe Garibaldi’s army.
In 1852 Count Camillo di Cavour became prime minister of Sardinia. He was able to convince the french Napoleon III to help him defeat the Austrians. The Austrians loss two major battles which caused the Austrians to surrender Lombardy. In 1860 Northern states except
Venetia which was still owned by Austria were now apart of Sardinia. In 1860 Giuseppe
Garibaldi conquered Sicily and Naples. In 1866 Italy and Prussia joined sides to defeat Austria as a reward Venice was granted to Italy. Italy moved their troops into a vacated Rome which was vacated by Napoleon III during the Franco­Prussian war. After that Rome became apart of Italy.
Now Italy was united as one country and no longer divided. Later down the road Italy became a republic on June 2, 1946. The country was previously a monarchy.
The early history of Italy is part of Rome and ­the Roman Empire, a cultural leadership which left an impact on the language and history of the Western World. This Empire was divided into two parts, Eastern and Western in the 4th century A.D. and began to fall apart the following century. Rome was taken by the Ostrogoths and the centralized government finally failed. In the 17th and early 18th centuries, Italy became the war zone for the political interests of Spain, France and Austria. The War of the Spanish Succession began in Italy in 1701 and the country was divided into kingdoms and dukedoms at the Peace of Utrecht in 1713. In 1720, the
Duke of Savoy became the King of Sardinia ­ a change that had far reaching results 130 years

later.

At first the Italian peninsula was made of a number of city­states and lands controlled by the Roman Catholic Church. From 1870 until 1922, Italy was a constitutional monarchy with a parliament elected under limited suffrage. The country fell into a dictatorship under Mussolini until near the end of World War II. Italy became a republic in 1946.
In May 1796, Italy was invaded by France and gradually overrun until Rome was occupied. In
1797, at the Treaty of Campo Formio, the northern states of Italy were divided between France and Austria and the Cisalpine Republic was formed as a French puppet. The Roman Republic was formed soon afterwards. However, war continued between Austria and France and, after the
Victory of Marengo in…