Izzy Asper Essay

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Pages: 19

Canadian History Term 1 Review
Chapter 1 The First People's
Part I First Migrations
BCE: Before Common Era
CE: Common Era
World Migration: 1. Out-of-Africa Model * Most accepted * Single origin in Africa 200 000 - 150 000 years ago * Homo erectus: * Evolved in Africa 1.8 million years ago * Migrated out * Became isolated * Direct link to homo sapient * Extinct about half a million years ago * Homo sapient: * Latin for knowing man * Class of humans * In Africa * About 200000 years ago to present * Mitochondrial Eve: * People inherited same DNA from one woman in Africa * 200000 years ago * Y chromosome Adam: * Men inherited Y * Chromosome about 100000 years ago * Migrated out of Africa: * 1st Asia and Australia * 2nd Europe * 3rd Americans 2. Multi regional Model * Homo erects left Africa * Regional groups into modern humans * Into North America: * Indigenous: first people to the area * Controversial historical area and issue * 1. Clovis model * Clovis = New Mexico city * Clovis culture: * Clovis model is distinct spear points * Clovis first = 1st inhabitants of North America * Arrived by Bering land bridge * Bering land bridge: * Where the Bering strait is and the Bering strait is very shallow even now * Land connected Siberia and Alaska * Beringia Theory * Land linked Asia to North America * Nomadic hunters followed food * Corridor between glaciers * People spread south * 2. Pre-Clovis model * Buttermilk creek: * Found more than 50 artifacts below Clovis level * Glaciers closed off path into north American * Suggested a coastal route * Coastal migrations: * Boat travel possibly * Pacific coast = from north Europe Asia * Pacific crossing = from Oceania * Atlantic crossing = from Europe to north America

Part II: First Nations Cultures
Oral tradition vs. written records: 1. Oral tradition * Main source of history * Pass on values * Told carefully and with precision 2. Written records * Wampum = shells by Mohawk recorded law, teachings * Birch bard: by Cree + Ojibway * Pictographs
Cultural beliefs: * Worldview: set of values and beliefs about the world * Egalitarian = promote equality * 7 sacred teachings/grandfathers: i. Wisdom ii. Love iii. Respect iv. Bravery v. Honesty vi. Humility vii. Truth * Consensus =decisions after everyone agrees * No majority rules * Significance of #4: i. Seasons ii. Directions iii. Physical elements iv. Aspects of people v. Stages of life=child teen adult elder vi. Herbs vii. Colours of people * Humans were the last created =caretakers and servants for earth i. White = Responsible for taking of air ii. Black = Water iii. Yellow = Fire iv. Red = Earth * Elders wisdom * Education = hostile * Equal importance on mental physical emotional spiritual aspects of life
First People Groups: * Language families 12 * Group of languages evolved from common language * Dialects: variation of language * First people cultural groups * Groups by environment : climate terrain wildlife * There’s 6 and we have to know plains and arctic 1. Plains: South Manitoba to Rockies to North Saskatchewan river * Plains were nomadic = Permanent location, move from one place to another * Not sedentary = Stay in main location…