For the first time in our country's history governmental control and power was transfered from one party to another. Power was transitioned from the Federalist party under Washington and Adams, to the Democratic/Republican party under Jefferson. Aslo, Jefferson's election marked the emeregence of a two party system. George Washington always believed that it was important to maintain a one party system so that the government presented a united front to its citizens. The fact that the country was now introduced to a two party system was also a major change. More importantly, the reason why the election of 1800 was revoultionary was it allowed Thomas Jefferson the opportunity to implement his political philosophy of a smaller more de-centralized federal governent, where as the Federalist party believed in a stronger more centralized governemt. This may have been best exemplified by the passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts under the Admas administration. Those laws gave enormous power to the federal governent to tamp out any written language or speech that they believed would defame the President or the U.S government. The acts also gave the president the right to expel or imprison any alien who was "dangerous" or "suspect" of treason, and expanded the time that it took for an alien to become a citizen.
After Calender was released from jail (in violation of the Sedition Acts) he and Alexander Hamilton were at Jefferson's side once more. "The Prospect" written by Calender and a pamphlet written by Hamilton, were both published, admonishing Adams and his presidency and calling into question the legitimacy of these laws.
These issues, combined with the fact the american public was clamorouing for war with France and was ultimatley unaware of the peace treaty signed by Adams and the French cost him a second term.
Once elected, Jefferon repudiated Federalist policiess, lowered taxes and cut military spending by 1/3. He believed in a smaller governemnt and trusted well informed citizen to govern themselves. He therefore repealed the Alien and Sedition Act. The Jefferson admistration faced many issues during his eight years in office. Politically, Jefferson faced the issue of Gabriel's Rebellion. At this time many blacks in the south were struggling with the idea of supreme white leadership. 24 year old blacksmith Gabriel planned a rebellion in Virginia. He was said to be organizing 1,000 slaves to take governor James Monroe hostage. On the appointed day a few nervous slaves went to the authorities. Gabriel, and his participants were later jailed.
The Marbury vs. Madison Supreme Court Case is one of the most important and famous constitutional issues in History. The case resulted from a petition to the supreme court by William Marbury. Marbury petitioned to force the supreme court to get James Madison to deliver the comission documents. The court found that Madisosn's refusal to deliver the comission was illegal. The court stopped short of compelling Madsion (by writ of mandemus) to give Marbury his comission. Instead they provised that the provisioned Judiciary Act of 1789, which actually enabled Marbury to his claim was unconstitutional. Therefore, the petition was denied.
From an economic standpoint The