Chapter 2 Job Analysis & Design
2.1 Learning Objectives
After learning this part students should understand:
A. The importance of Job Analysis to other personnel functions, such as personnel planning, recruitment, employee selection, performance appraisal, training, compensation, discipline, health and safety programs, and labor-management relations.
B. The various methods by which job analysis information can be collected, as well as the strengths and weaknesses of each method.
C. The important elements of job descriptions and specifications.
D. The various approaches to the design of jobs, and the underlying philosophy.
2.2 Job Analysis
2.2.1 The Importance of Job Analysis to Other Personnel Functions
A key element in human resource management program is job analysis. Once an effective job analysis program is established and maintained, many troublesome personnel problems either become much less difficult to resolve or disappear entirely. Job analysis is the basis of the other personnel functions. It results in two essential documents: the job descriptions and the job specifications. They will be used in the other functions, such as personnel planning, recruitment, employee selection, performance appraisal, training, compensation, discipline, health and safety programs, and labor-management relations.
Figure 2-1 illustrates the pervasive influence of job analysis on the personnel/human resource management function. (provide a table copy(table 4-2) which includes some specific examples of where job analysis information becomes especially useful. Remember, it is not exhaustive.)
2.2.2 Job Analysis Process
About the job analysis process you can find it from Figure 2-2
Figure 2-2 Process of Job Analysis
A. Selection of Jobs for Job Analysis A job may be selected for job analysis because it has undergone undocumented changes in job content and the personnel functions that depend upon accurate documentation cannot be properly performed. The following three cases need to be selected as jobs to be analyzed.
1) when a new organization is set up
2) when new work appears
3) when new techniques appear or big changes happened in the work
B. Gather Information (Data Collection)
Three major issues must be addressed when planning the collection of job analysis data. First, what type of job analysis information is needed? Second, what methods should be used to collect the information? Third, who should collect and provide the information.
a. Description of work activities(tasks)
b. Interface with other jobs and equipment
c. Procedures used
d. Behaviors required on the job
e. Physical movements and demands of the job
Machine, Tools, Equipment, and Work Aids Used Job Context
a. Physical working conditions
b. Organizational context
c. Social context
d. Work schedule
e. Incentives (financial and nonfinancial ) Personal Requirements a. Specific skills
b. Specific education and training
c. work experience (related jobs)
d. physical characteristic
2) Methods Used to Collect Job Analysis Information
A. Observation of Tasks and Job Behavior
B. Interviews with the job incumbent
C. Questionnaires and checklists
D. Other methods include participant logs ,conferences with supervisory personnel.
3) Persons responsible for collecting job analysis information.
Most job analysis project rely on one of three types of individuals: trained job analysts, supervisors, or incumbents.
C. Processing the information into job description and job specification
As mentioned earlier, the job analysis process results in two essential documents: the job descriptions and the job specifications. The former summarizes the duties, responsibilities, working conditions, and activities of a particular job. And the latter outlines employee qualifications such as education level, job-related