This paper explores seven published articles that survey the impact job dissatisfaction has on the psychological well-being of employees. It seems logical that when employees are dissatisfied at work, symptoms such as depression, anxiety and a general decrease in mental health would result, indicating a decrease in a person’s psychological well-being. The authors use several definitions of job satisfaction, although most agree that it includes feeling fulfilled by the work completed, displaying positive behaviors on the job and having generally positive attitudes. Psychological well-being is defined by an absence of significant anxiety, depression, insomnia and contentment. Most of the researchers found that there was a decreased level of psychological well-being amongst various employees, in various countries and in different jobs. However, in many studies it was unclear whether the cause of the mental health issue was directly related to job dissatisfaction or if perhaps there were other contributing factors. It is important to examine the relationship in order to understand how to create a healthier employee and better job performance and therefore a more successful company or institution.
The Relationship between Job Satisfaction and Psychological Well-being
“I’m gonna quit!” We’ve all heard someone yell after a terrible day at work. Many a friend has listened to a disgruntled employee list the thousand reasons they don’t like the company, the job, the boss and the fact that they are always feeling unhappy or anxious. Many people express that they are dissatisfied with work because they are overloaded, their input is not acknowledged or their boss is too demanding or unfair. This causes one to wonder, could these circumstances lead to feelings of unhappiness, depression or anxiety? Do men and women have the same psychological responses to these negative work circumstances? While the possibility of this relationship exists, do factors such as reported levels of contentment coming into the job and stress levels in relationships at home and in other social relationships have something to do with the negative feelings employees are experiencing? These are all questions that researchers have asked. Many researchers have conducted studies across various fields of work and in many different countries to see if there a direct relationship between job satisfaction and psychological well-being. Based on experience and these findings, when employees are dissatisfied at work, symptoms such as depression, anxiety and a general decrease in mental health will result, indicating a decrease in a person’s psychological well-being.
According to Rathi and Rastogi (2008), job satisfaction can be measured in six dimensions. The first is one’s sense of autonomy, the second one’s sense of mastery of the job, the third, one’s sense of personal growth, the forth, the ability to form positive relationships, the fifth, having a sense of purpose and the sixth self-acceptance. Psychological well-being is defined as the extent to which an individual feels good and contented with self, in a way which may be dependent on his/her work situation (Patrick, 2008). According to Berkowitz, et al (2001) burnout has three factors: emotional exhaustion, defined as feeling emotionally overextended and exhausted by work; depersonalization, defined by having a negative, cynical attitude and impersonal feelings toward their patients; and by reduced personal accomplishment, defined by feeling that work has low productivity and little achievement.
Patrick (2008) studied the job satisfaction of 144 employees between 18-55 years old from various organizations working in jobs from associates to middle level managers. They responded by self- reported questionnaires. His results found that there was a direct correlation between reported job satisfaction and psychological