What: Queen of England during the Spanish Armada
When: mid 1500s
Significance: During her reign, England rose to prominence and became the leader of protestant nations. It also experienced a cultural renaissance. Her religious policy of toleration was based on moderation and compromise.
What: English King; father of Queen Elizabeth
Significance: King who was cut off from the Roman Church because he impregnated his future wife (who gave birth to Queen Elizabeth). Started the Anglican Church which he was the head of in order to play part in the church.
What: Protestant reformer
Significance: founder of Calvinism, systematic theologian, wrote “Institutes of the Christian Religion” Agreed with Luther mostly, but spread further with God’s sovereignty. Calvin spoke of predestination
Council of Trent
What: Group who met to determine differences between Protestants and Catholics
When: 1545 - 1563
Where: Trent (border between Germany and Italy)
Significance: scripture and tradition were affirmed as equal authorities (only the church could interpret scripture). Both faith and Good works were necessary for salvation. The 7 sacraments, transubstantiation and clerical celibacy were all upheld, purgatory was strengthened but the indulgences were no longer sold.
What: Spanish soldier/religious leader
When: late 1400s-1500s
Significance: founder of the Jesuits, wrote “The Spiritual Exercises,” stressed submission to hierarchical church, thought ‘sola gratia’ was dangerous
Peace of Westphalia
What: officially ended the 30 years’ war in Germany
Significance: Said that every German state was free to choose its own religion, pretty much end of HRE, splits in religion made permanent it’s the revelation of the reformation. Sweden became a greater power and ends the war.
Who: Scientist, astronomer
Significance: First European to make systematic observations by means of a telescope. Discovered imperfections in heavenly realms, He was condemned by the Catholic church and this hindered further scientific work in Italy.
Who: Mathematician, Philosopher
Where: late 1600s-1700
Significance: Pieced together a coherent synthesis for a new cosmology and used mathematical proofs to demonstrate his universal law of gravitation. Combined the theories of Copernicus, Kepler, and Galileo. He invented calculus!
Laws of Nature
What: principles discoverable by human reason that explain/predict regularity in nature
When: Scientific Revolution
Significance: replaces faith and miracles as a means of explaining nature, influenced Locke and Jefferson
What: period of time marked by a revolution in science and intellectual life
When: 17th century
Significance new view/knowledge of the universe (How things work) based on increasingly secular sources of authority for knowledge, formed basis for modern science, (look to intellectuals and science as authority on knowledge rather than God and the Bible, something still evident today)
Who: Philosopher and Mathematician
When: Early 1600s
Significance: Doubt what we can’t know for certain; he knows he exists. Cogito, ergo sum. Wrote Meditations; knowledge can be attained by reason alone, “father of modern philosophy”
When: 18th century
Significance: Believed individuals are autonomous, a moral person follows the commands of reason
Who: Social Contract Theorist, philosopher
When: late 1600s
Significance: mind is a tabula rasa (no innate ideas get ideas from study), senses are primary sources of truth, inductive, Social Contract Theory, influenced Jefferson