The most common explanation for the Rwandan genocide interprets the violence as a state project, whereby elites were able to manipulate and bully the population into carrying out their programme of mass slaughter (Fletcher 2007, p.28).
Straus agrees with this, saying that scholars have presented the Rwandan genocide as “a state-organised, planned extermination campaign” (Straus 2004, p.86).
Fletcher, L. (2007) 'Turning interahamwe: individual and community choices in the Rwandan genocide'. Journal of Genocide Research, (9)1, pp. 25-48.
Straus, S. (2004) 'How many perpetrators were there in the Rwandan genocide? An estimate'. Journal of Genocidal Research, (6)1, pp. 85-98.
In this example, the longer quote has been put in a separate, indented paragraph. The shorter quote has been put in inverted commas. In both cases, it is clear where the student has quoted someone else's work.
Next to the direct quote, you must include a citation to show where the quote came from. In addition, you must include a full reference to the original work. You can see the student's references at the bottom of the example above.
You do not need to quote information which is common knowledge e.g. Everest is the highest mountain in the world. It can seem hard to judge which information is common knowledge. If you are unsure, it may be best to provide a reference.
You could try checking in an encyclopaedia in the library (not Wikipedia); information which is common knowledge will usually not be referenced in the library's encyclopaedia.
What is the difference between a reference and a citation?
Citation is the 'link' in the text, whether a number or author and date, that connects the data/information/ideas being