Cakes were invented in Ancient Egypt as round, flat, and unleavened breads that were “baked” on hot stone. In the 1800’s the Asians figured out that eggs and baking powder can cause cakes to rise and that cooking with eggs and baking powder is much easier rather than waiting for yeast to rise.. Since then, cakes have become more complex and they require more care. Cakes are now affected by baking powder, temperature, and chemical reactions. Baking powder is a key element when baking cakes. Baking powder is a mixture of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) and acidic salt. All of the ingredients in baking powder are used to stabilize its strong components. Baking powder also produces the gas carbon dioxide. The amount of acidic salt in the baking powder determines how much carbon dioxide is released. The amount of gas released will determine the volume and texture of the finished product. Heat energy can be added and applied to many forms of matter. When heat is applied, molecules bounce around and go crazy. This is why when heat is applied to objects they become hot. Heat will also cause objects such as cakes and breads to rise. The oven that the item is being baked in also affects the interior and exterior of the finished baked product. Modern ovens will usually give off heat by using radiation. Modern ovens have many more conveniences than hot stones and microwaves. Chemical reactions happen instantly. After a reaction has taken place, molecules that existed before are completely different molecules in the end. Also new chemical bonds are formed after the reaction. Chemical bonds appear in two forms: hydrogen bonds which deal with lipids and proteins and metallic bonds which deal with currents and the flow of energy. These bonds are created after the chemical reaction has taken place. As stated before cakes can be affected by baking powder, temperature and heat, and chemical bonds. Each factor has a certain role that can change elements in the finished baked product. When baking you must follow the recipe exactly because a baking scientist has already figured the perfect amount of each ingredient needed to achieve perfect results. The scientist also notes the exact baking temperature on the recipe so that the ingredients react for best results.
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