In Junipero Serra’s biography by Steven Hackel, the author depicts the life of Father Serra who would be remembered in history as one of the most influential people of California. Father Serra, born in 1713 in the island of Mallorca would grow up to become California’s Founding Father. In this biography, the author uses primary sources to examine the life of the Franciscan priest, which allows the reader to learn who this man was and the impact he had in the colonization of California. Today, Father Serra can be seen as a controversial figure in history since some may view him as heroic and saintly man, while others may view him as a an evil man for his wrongdoings against the Native Indians of California. The author examines and analyzes Serra’s early life as it played an important role in the shaping of his character and beliefs as a priest. Growing up in a poor family in Petra, Mallorca, Miguel Joseph spent a lot of his childhood in the convento church of San Bernardino where he was educated and was also his place of worship. As stated by the author, “From an early age Miguel Joseph understood the Fransiscan life as one committed to building Catholic houses of worship and spreading the gospel” (22). Miguel Joseph’s religious upbringing would dictate the man he would become and the influence he would have in the creation of missions in California. Leaving his family behind, Miguel Joseph embarked on a journey where he would give his life to the institution of the Catholic Church to follow God’s will. As the author explains, Miguel Joseph went on to follow his dream of becoming a priest and before his profession to the order was completed he decided to change his name to Junipero Serra. Serra’s early life is very important to analyze as it influenced his religious beliefs and his decision to travel to California and spread the gospel of God. Serra’s early life as a preacher and professor would dictate his decision to become a missionary at the age of 36, where he would embark in a journey to the new world. Serra spent his first years as a missionary in Mexico in several missions where he would fulfill God’s will in spreading the gospel. Francisco Palou, a missionary from Mallorca joined Serra in his journey to the new world and it is through his biography of Serra, Relacion Historica, published in 1787 that historians have been able to study and examine the life and work of Serra. After years of ministering and serving as a comisario of the inquisition in Mexico, Serra was given the opportunity he had been searching for and so he embarked on a mission program up north to California. There he would further extend Spain’s frontier and would begin to build the missions of California. Serra is depicted by the author as a man that was determined and committed in fulfilling his calling in converting the Indians to the holy Catholic faith. In a letter to Palou from Serra, he explains how California is “not only fertile soil and sources of freshwater but also an immense population of unbaptized Indians awaiting conversion” (161). Serra believed that California was a promised land and converting the Indians would be a simple task, “In their innocent state, the California Indians would be converted at the mere sight of the Franciscans” (162). However, as noted by the author, the Indians were unhappy with the Spanish Intruders and as a result, Serra’s efforts to spread the catholic faith was challenged…
California. It follows the Salinas River northwest to its mouth at Monterey Bay. It is located between two mountain ranges, the Gabilan on the east and Santa Lucia to the west. The Santa Lucia mountains are steeper with the highest peak being Junipero Serra Peak at 5,857 feet. In fact, it has the steepest coastal incline in the lower 48 states, Cone Peak at 5,158 feet. The Gabilan mountain range has a lower peak elevation of 3,455 feet. The valley is “a trough that probably holds a great deal of…
The most typical desserts are cinnamon-flavored rice pudding, flan, and caramel custard, but they also often include a variety of cheese. The most common varieties are made from sheep or goat's milk, and the most popular is "queijo da serra" from the region of Serra da Estrela.
Many of the country's outstanding pastries were created by nuns in the 18th century, which they sold them as a means of supplementing their incomes. Many of their creations have interesting names like "barriga de freira"…
* San Antonio mission called the Alamo
* Spanish in Texas around 1716
* No threat for Spanish in California
* Juan Rodriquez Cabrillo explored California in 1542
* 1769: California missions led by Father Junipero Serra
* Known – robed Franciscan Friars
* Natives did adopt Christianity but lost own cultures and beliefs
* “Black Legend” – concept held by conquerors that they merely butchered and tortured Indians in the name…
Appalachian State somehow kicked the Michigan Wolverines to the curb on their home turf? Of course, the MMA equivalent of the aforementioned was UFC 69, a night when Matt Serra, a good fighter in his own right, seemed outsized and overmatched against Georges St. Pierre coming in. But a rocket right hand followed by a flurry of punches from Serra later reminded the world that favorites, even heavy ones, don't always win.
So how does this all happen? What allows one person or team to come through against…
The Spanish thought that if the Indians were Catholic, they would support Spain’s government. The three main purposes of the California Missions were to spread Catholicism to help Spain gain power, and to make products to trade Father Juniperro Serra was put in charge of setting up all the missions. San Gabriel Arcangel has an interesting history that includes the California Indians and their resources, life at the mission, the many hardships, and finally secularization of the mission.
Richard Serra’s large scale steel sculptures are site-specific and force the viewers to think about their body in relation to the piece. Serra builds his pieces thinking about how the viewer may move in or around the piece, and usually creates large pieces so the viewer can do so. This common theme amongst his pieces can be exemplified when observing “Tourqued Spirals, Toruses, and Spheres.” In an interview, Serra explains that he”wanted to remove the…
racist experiences of persons of color in this country.
Organized military killed indians and were given 25 cents a scalp and 5 a head.
In 1851 and 1852 the state of California paid out close to 1 million for the killing of Indians
Father Juniper Serra liked to beat and starve Native poeple
Living in a foreign country for a while, I realized the differences of racism and how people are treated with
more respect regardless of their religion or race. People in Hijabs are respected just like the blonde white…
home through the San Andreas Rift Zone, the full moon eclipsing to a ruddy disc over my right shoulder. Over Montara Mountain, ahead on my left, is my first glimpse of the smear of Hale-Bopp. As I hurtle along at seventy miles per hour on the Junipero Serra Freeway, nodding to sleep in the back seat is my almost five-year-old daughter, her body like a question mark against the door She's been battling cold after cold since early December. In the dim light her face looks like the pale curls of creamy…
NYC’s Federal Plaza, was perhaps the most celebrated of these unwelcome additions to the public scene. Opposed immediately by the office workers who had used the plaza for lunch breaks and exercise, the sculpture was fiercely defended in the courts by Serra, who claimed First Amendment rights and regarded the community criticism as censorship. Suggestions that the piece might be moved to a different location were resisted by the artist, who insisted that the work was site specific. Artists, curators,…
Leaves His Legacy as a Leader in Reforming and Colonizing California
Paper Length: 2086 words
In 1713, exploration of the newfound land known as America, was increasing as many powerful countries sought to colonize the fruit baring area for trade. One of these countries, Spain, began creating establishments in Central America and parts of what is now known as The United States. These establishments, known as missions…