In the last decade, tourism has become one of the most successful industries in the world. This increase comes after improving transport and standard of living. According to the World Tourism Organization, 700 million individuals traveled to a foreign country in 2013, spending more than $ 478 billion, which will making tourism the world's number one export earner, ahead of automotive products, chemicals, petroleum and food. For example, Egypt is one of the most popular destinations in developing countries. Tourism is one of the most important sectors in economy. Foreign exchange, decrease unemployment and fast-growing encourages investments to new infrastructure are positive effects of tourism in Egypt economy side. However, it causes irreparable damage for social side and the culture. This project will describe about economic and social impacts of tourism in Egypt.
Section1: economic impact
Tourism has a lot of advantages for Egypt economy. In this country tourism constituted 1 percent of the world’s tourism industry, providing over 19 % of foreign exchange earnings or 11 percent of GDP per year (Al-Ahram Weekly. 16–22 October 2008), as well as contributing to the continuous inflow of investments. In addition, government solves the problem of unemployment by tourism, about 12 percent of the economically active population works in this industry, which remains at high level according to official figures, about 10 percent, according to unofficial - more than 20("Egypt – international tourism" 11 October 2014.).The government actively supports the developing of foreign tourism since it has become a significant source of currency and investments. They started build new infrastructure which gives great opportunities for people. Other economic advantages of tourism are departure taxes, taxes for alcohol and others which provide considerable government income. However, tourism also had negative effect on the economy; first of all, it is migration to urban area because it can leave the countryside without sufficient workers and may be rural areas will be destroyed. Secondly, increase of cost for accommodation, Karl Marks wrote that: “The law of supply and demand”. Which means if there is a low supply and a high demand, the price will be high. In contrast, the greater the supply and the lower the demand, the lower the price will be. Other negative impact is job level friction- jobs with a great salary and more prestigiously are occupied by foreigners or “rural” nationals. This will lead friction and increases the gap between the social classes.
Section 2: social impact
The standards of life in Egypt have improved because of tourism. For instance, the appearance of entertainments, services and health centers. Travelling abroad make probabilities to meet international people, knowing more the cultures, and reveal itself. Also, it can help to practice different cultural experiences and spread the critical thinking. At the same time they will improve high family income, which gives more opportunity for people. Social and cultural drawbacks include: First negative impact on social side is cultural impairment. It caused by the spreading of vandalism among youth generation from other country, destroying of historical heritages and increasing the number of pilferage. In result, the historical landscape can be changed and destroyed finally. An addition, there is a problem with the lack of the prime resources such as energy and drink water because of high number of arrivals. As a result the local people can suffer from the scarce supply. Finally, because of the construction of shoreline hotels instead of traditional land-uses there are a clash among locals and businessmen can be appeared.
Nowadays in Egypt one of the most important problems is environment pollution. There damage on historical places, aesthetic roads and car parks location near historic places