1- One of the major goals during the Russian Revolution of 1917 was power to the people or popular sovereignty. The destruction of the repressive Imperial Hierarchy of Russia that kept the common Russian people in serfdom for several years and to eradicate the authority of the Russian aristocracy. Additionally, public ownership of all land and means of production. The overall goal was to end the harsh conditions of living the tsars enforced on the common people or peasants. The outcome of the revolution was a government that was just as corrupt as previously. By 1917, most of Russia suffered under centuries of oppression. The working class was required to pay large taxes and fees to own land and forced peasants to work for no pay. The Czars retained control of most of the land in Russia and peasants desired change. Russia is taken over by the Bolshevik Party, led by Lenin and will soon be known as the Communist Party.
2- Lenin believed that, although Russia had only rid itself of feudalism, this stage could be shortened, allowing for a socialist revolution. Lenin also believed that the peasants were always conservative and would support the existing regime and the driving force of the socialist revolution would in fact be the peasants, but the peasants wouldn’t be able to do anything of this without a leader. Lenin took Karl Marx’s ideologies and infused bits of his beliefs, starting the creation of a new form of Marxism called Marxism-Leninism.
a. Stalin’s ideas of communism differed from that of Lenin’s ideals because he believed that everyone should contribute to the state; the states’ need was far greater that the peasants needs. His idea of communism consisted of a totalitarian government to control the means of production and exploit the people of Russia. Marx believed that communism would have no government; that the means of production would be controlled by all and no person shall be exploited. Stalin, on the other hand, believed in making a successful and stable communist regime then to expand and spread influence to other countries. Stalin’s communism was a political dictatorship unlike Marx’s societal evolution of one type of society.
a. The Five Year Plan was to modernize the Soviet industry and to try to bridge the gap between Russia and the Western world. Stalin created the policy of collectivization which would eventually prove a success and also devastation through man-made famines. Stalin’s economic goal was to create a rural working class, peasants were to be paid wages and the machinery and land was now owned by the collective. Collectivization also designed to modernize farming practices to create a surplus to sell abroad for hard currency and to free up manpower as they needed more urban factories.
b. Stalin created a totalitarian government were only a few people had power. Stalin had complete control of his country and even censored newspaper and radio. If Stalin felt that his power was being challenged, he would eliminate the threat, erase the name from the records/archives and forget what ever happened. Government under Stalinism was also very corrupt as the communist party leaders would steal from the peasants; the peasants did all the work but lived in poor houses while the nobility did almost nothing and lived in higher and richer places.
c. Education was strictly controlled by the Russian state. A program of discipline and education was introduced. Exams, banned under Lenin, were also reintroduced. The way subjects were taught were laid down by the government, specifically history where Stalin’s part in the 1917 Revolution and his relationship with Lenin was overplayed. Books and Newspaper were strictly censored by the State and Stalin created the book, A Short History of the USSR, which was required to be read in schools.
A. The strict foreign policy previously enacted on the Russia was lifted during the process of