1) what are the names of the three domains?
Archae, Bacteria and Eukarya
2) Provide examples of each Domain:
Archae- prokaryotic, unicellular organisms that live in the most extreme environments
i) methanogens: organisms that live in digestive tracts of organisms, and anaerobic (NO O2) environments of swamps and marshes that produce methane (CH4) ii) halophiles: ("salt lovers") which require light as their energy source iii) thermoacidophiles: grow in thermal vents (temps. up to 105) use sulphate (SO4) as their energy source
Bacteria- prokaryotic, unicellular organisms that are classified by their shape and growth type ex: cyanobacteria- "blue-green" algae (aka "pond scum", eubacteria-gram+ve, spirochetes, and prochlorophyta- similar to plant chloroplasts)
Eukarya- unicellular/multicellular, eukrayotic organisms ex: protists, fungus, animals and plants
3) Why were Domains only recently incorporated into the field of taxanomy? all the domains are very unique from one another, there is conflicting evidence as to which the first two domains gave rise to the domain Eukraya
4) What are the 5 Kingdoms used in Taxonomy? Provide an example for each.
a) Monera- earliest life form on earth, unicellular prokaryotic cells that resemble chloroplasts and mitochondria, found everywhere on planet and have autotrophic or hetertrophic representatives, reproduce mostly by asexual reproduction (binary fission) some sexual reproduction (conjugation) ex: spirochetes, anthrax, MRSA --> "super bugs"
b) Protista- single celled or colonial organisms (eukrayotic) (some taxonomists include algae- bullwhip kelp), there are animal- like plant- like and fungus- like protists, mostly found in aquatic environments, classified as either heterotrophs or autotrophs, reproduce mostly by asexual reproduction (binary fission), some sexual reproduction (conjugation) ex: paramecium, amoebae, Volcox
c) Fungi- some are single celled, most are unicellular eukrayotic organisms, have cell walls made out of chitin, store food as glycogen, found in most environments, prefer warm and moist places, are heterotrophes usually release enzymes to break down food before absorbed, reproduce asexually (binary fission, fragmentation and asexual spore formation) and sexually (sexual spore formation)
d) Animalia- multicellular, eukrayotic organisms, found in many different environments, no cell walls (only cell membranes), energy is stored as glycogen, reproduction is mostly asexual; some asexual reproduction in the lower invertebrates (budding)
e) Plantae- multicellular, eukrayotic organisms with cellulose cell walls, and energy storage as strach, use photosynthesis to obtain their energy (autotrophs), plants alternate between sexual and asexual reporoduction stages during their life cycle ex: cacti, dandelions, birch..
5) ** ON SHEET**
1) Autotrophic: "self nourishing"
- an autotroph is able to…