10 June 2013
1. Describe the Information Processing Model.
Information processing theory explains motor learning in terms of cognition and the processing of information. Based on the theory, the information processing model consists of four components or processes: input, decision making, output, and feedback.
2. Describe the three stages of learning.
Cognitive Learning: the learner is endeavoring to understand the nature goal of the activity to be learned
Associative: the basics of the skill have been learned and the learner concentrates on refining the skill
Autonomous Stage: this stage of learning is after much practice
3. Discuss the four factors that influence learning.
Readiness: Physiological and psychological factors influencing an individual’s ability and willingness to learn.
Motivation: A condition within an individual that initiates activity directed toward a goal. Concern with initiation, maintenance, and intensity of behavior.
Reinforcement: Using events, actions, and behaviors to increase the likelihood of a certain response recurring. May be positive or negative.
Individual Differences: Backgrounds, abilities, intelligence, learning styles, and personalities of learners.
4. Differentiate "knowledge of results" and "knowledge of performance" in regards to feedback.
5. Discuss the Phases of Development and when they typically occur.
Early reflexive (in utero to about 1 year of age) & rudimentary movement phases (birth to about 2 years of age): Hereditary is the primary factor for development. Sequential progression of development but individuals’ rates of development will differ.
Fundamental movement phase (ages 2 to 7): Skill acquisition based on encouragement, instruction, and opportunities for practice.
Specialized movement phase (ages 7 to 10 and older): Skill refinement
6. Define and differentiate the three types of fundamental motor skills including locomotor, non-locomotor, and manipulative.
Locomotor: skills in which the body moves through space, including running, jumping, and sliding
Nonlocomotor: typically done from relatively stationary position, using a stable base of support. Generally preformed in place, nonlocomotor skills include bending, stretching, and pushing
Manipulative: skills used in handing objects; throwing, catching, striking, and kicking are examples of manipulative skills
7. Define kinetics, kinematics, velocity, acceleration, angular velocity, angular acceleration. and give one practical example of the use of each of these terms in sports and/or other aspects of our field.
Kinematics: time and space----velocity and acceleration
Kinetics: forces such as gravity and muscle
Velocity: change in speed or direction of body per unit of time… Example: the velocity of a baseball from the time it leaves the pitcher’s hand to the time it arrives in the catcher’s glove can be measured in this manner
Acceleration: change in velocity… Example: an individual playing basketball can add positive acceleration when dribbling toward the basket on a fast break
Angular Velocity: angle that is rotated in a given unit of time…Example: when a bowling bowl is rolled down a lane, its angular velocity can be computed mathematically in terms of revolutions per second
Angular Acceleration: change in angular velocity for a given unit of time…Example: after the bowling bowl