Know the Long Term Effects of Excersise on the Body System Essay

Submitted By AlanaStephenson1
Words: 606
Pages: 3

Principles of anatomy and physiology in sport

The structure and function of the skeletal system
In this essay I will be talking about the skeletal system, its functions including the axial and appendicular skeleton and the bones within the skeletal system shown within a diagram.

These are the bones within the skeletal system (the locations of certain bones are shown by the labelled lines), there are 206 bones in the human body (Shown in the diagram above) the skeleton is divided into two groups, 80 bones form your axial skeleton, the other 126 form your appendicular skeleton.
The Axial Skeleton The axial skeleton consists of the skull (cranium and facial bones), thorax (sternum and ribs) vertebral column and the long axis of your body which is shown in the diagram above which is coloured in yellow.
The Appendicular Skeleton
The appendicular skeleton consists of the bones of the upper limbs (60 bones) each upper limb is made up of one humerus, one radius, one ulna, eight carplals, five metacarpals and fourteen phalanges. 60 bones form the lower limbs; each lower limb consists of one femur (thigh bone), one tibia (shin bone), one fibula, one patella (kneecap), seven tarsals, five metatarsals and fourteen phalanges. These are designed for weight bearing, locomotion and maintaining an upright posture. They need to have a higher degree of strength and stability than the bones of the upper limbs. The shoulder girdle consists of four bones, two clavicles and two scapulae which connect the upper limbs to the body. The pelvic girdle is made of three bones, the ilium, pubis and ischium. These fuse together with age and are collectively known as the innominate bone. The principal function of the pelvic girdle is to provide a solid base through which to transmit the weight of the upper body. It also provides attachment for the powerful muscles of the lower back and legs, and protects the digestive and reproductive organs.
There are five types of bones within the human body. (The types of bones are shown below.)
Long bones
Long bones are found in the limbs, they have a shaft called the diaphysis, the two expanded ends are known as the epiphysis, examples such as the tibia and fibula. Articular cartilage is needed so two bones do not rub together and cause pain, making it very hard to…