I. Define each of the terms. (Click on the title above to open the assignment area. Copy and paste these terms into the assignment box to add your definitions or you may copy and paste them into a Word file, save your file to your computer and attach the file to this assignment area.)
ATP – An important intracellular energy source. Glycolysis – The main pathway for the oxidation of glucose to pyruvic acid; also called Embden-Meyerhof pathway. Citric Acid Cycle – A pathway that converts two-carbon compounds to CO2, transferring electrons to NAD+ and other carriers; also called the Krebs cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle. Electron Transport System (Chain) – A series of compounds that transfer electrons from one compound to another, generating ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. Aerobic (Cellular) Respiration – Respiration in which the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is molecular oxygen (O2). Anaerobic Respiration – Respiration in which the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain is an inorganic molecule other than molecular oxygen (O2); for example, a nitrate ion or CO2. Fermentation – The enzymatic degradation of carbohydrates in which the final electron acceptor is an organic molecule, ATP is synthesized by substrate-level phosphorylation, and O2 is not required. Catabolism – All decomposition reactions in a living organism; the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones. Anabolism – All synthesis reactions in a living organism; the building of complex organic molecules from simpler ones.
II. Each of the following are compounds used in or produced by aerobic respiration and/or fermentation. Explain how each of them is involved in one or both of these processes.
NADH + - During fermentation, electrons are transferred