Goals for this lab:
1. Isolate cat muscle set #2
2. Identify muscle set #2 on the models from table #2 at the end of this lab
3. Identify muscle set #2 images on my web site
4. Identify respiratory structures on the models
5. Identify respiratory structures on my web site
Martini Chapters: 10, 11, 24
Part I: Isolation of cat muscles
Please isolate the following muscles as depicted in your cat dissection manual:
Latissimus dorsi, Spinotrapezius, Acromiotrapezius, Clavotrapezius, Clavodeltoid (Clavobrachialis), Levator scapulae ventralis, Acromiodeltoid, Spinodeltoid
Serratus anterior, Scalenus anterior, Scalenus medius, Scalenus posterior, Subscapularis, Transverse costarum, Rectus abdominus
Long head of triceps brachii, Lateral head of triceps brachii
Part II: Identify the muscles in the Power Point presentation
Part III: Familiarize yourself with the muscle located on my web page
Part IV: Respiratory system
1. Define pulmonary ventilation, pulmonary respiration, & tissue respiration
Pulmonary ventilation is the inspiration & expiration of air
Pulmonary respiration is the transfer of gases between the lungs & the blood
Tissue respiration is the transfer of gases between the blood & the tissues
2. What is the function of the nasal conchae and meatuses?
To increase the surface area of the nasal cavity to FILTER, warm, & moisten the air
3. Name the 3 parts of the pharynx. What kind of epithelium covers these parts?
OROPHARYNX: Stratified squamous
HYPOPHARYNX: Stratified squamous
4. What organs make up the lower respiratory system
LARYNX, TRACHEA, BRONCHI, LUNGS
5. What are the cartilage pieces that make up the larynx?
single (thyroid, epiglottic, & cricoid) & three are paired (arytenoid, corniculate, cuneiform)
6. What kinds of epithelium would you find on superior & inferior surfaces of the epiglottis?
SUPERIOR = STRATIFIED SQUAMOUS, INFERIOR = PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED COLUMNAR
7. What 4 layers make up the trachea wall?
Pseudostratified ciliated epithelium with goblet cells
Submucosa made of areolar CT
Hyaline cartilage with smooth muscle
Adventitia made of areolar CT
8. What are the effects of histamine and epinephrine on the bronchioles?
Histamine is a bronchoconstrictor
Epinephrine is a bronchodilator
9. How many lobes does each lung possess?
Right lung has 3 lobes
Left lung has 2 lobes
10. What fissures separate the lungs into lobes
The right lung’s lobes are separated by both the oblique and horizontal fissures
The left lung’s lobes are separated by the oblique fissure
11. Which lung has the cardiac notch?
12. What is a hilus? On what surface is the hilus located?
A region where the bronchi, pulmonary blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, & nerves enter & exit The hilus is located on the mediastinal surface
13. Name the cell which secretes surfactant. What is the function of surfactant?
ALVEOLAR TYPE II secretes surfactant.
Surfactant reduces the alveolar surface tension, allowing the alveoli to expand