Lab Practical Review Sheet Essay

Submitted By Richalice-Melendez
Words: 1945
Pages: 8

ANSC 2120 Lab Practical Review Sheet

Define Ration- amount given to an animal Diet- feed ingredients Dry Matter (DM)- Everything in the feed (sample) minus the water (protein, fat, minerals, etc.) Total Mixed Ration (TMR)- a mix of various ingredients to meet the nutritive requirements of the animal (animals cannot choose their favorite thing) Crude Protein- estimate of the amount of protein in a sample (assumes that protein is 16% N and that all nitrogen is found in protein); the total protein in a sample including true protein and non-protein nitrogen Crude Fiber- Method of fiber analysis used to divide carbohydrates unto digestible and indigestible fractions; accounts for most of the cellulose and only a portion of the lignin; good for grains Acid Detergent Fiber (ADF)- cellulose and lignin; affects digestibility; as lignin content increases, digestibility of cellulose decreases Neutral Detergent Fiber (NDF)- hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin; cell wall (structural carbohydrates)- hemicellulose and cellulose can be broken down in the rumen; NDF is negatively correlated with intake Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN)- denotes the sum of digestible protein, digestible NSC, digestible NDF, and digestible fat

Roughages v. Concentrates Roughages- >32% NDF (22%ADF) <70% TDN; the entire plant can be used Relatively low in energy
Dry forages
Green forages (pasture)
Silages
Concentrates- <32% NDF, <22% ADF, high in energy
Energy feeds (<20% protein)- corn and other small grains
Supplements (protein (>= 20% protein; soybeans, fishmeal, meat and bone meals, distiller’s grain, cottonseed), mineral (Ca and P, ratio is important, as well as amounts, vitamin)
Non-nutrient items (additives)
Preservation and processing: drying, ensiling at high moisture, steam flaking, rolling, grinding, extruding, expelling, tempering

Forage Quality- a component of nutrient composition, intake, digestibility, and metabolism Factors affecting- species, maturity, preservation, environment Legumes v. grasses
Grasses
Legumes
Annuals or perennials
Annuals, biennials, perennials
Monocotyledons
Dicotyledons
Endosperm surrounded by fibrous seed coat
Seeds in pods
Cereals, timothy
Can fix atmospheric N (rhizobia)

Clover, alfalfa, peas, beans

Why do we process feeds? To maintain or improve nutritive value (increase digestibility and nutrient accessibility through altered physical form or particle size, prevent spoilage, isolate specific plant parts, detoxify poisons/ anti-nutritional factors) and improve handling and storage efficiency, reduce waste Advantages and disadvantages of Silage
Advantages
Disadvantages
Tasty
Improper storage= high loss
Fits well into TMR
Expensive storage
Not as weather dependent
Transport-poor
Can use whole plant
Bunk life may be short if not stored properly

of Hay (mow forage early in day, form into spread swath, rake or ted at 40%-50% moisture, bale at 18%-20% moisture, store hay under cover)
Advantages
Disadvantages
Preserve good quality feed
Weather-dependent
Long-term storage
Labor-intensive
Transport-ready
Combustion danger
Cash crop
Leaf shatter, drying, general losses

Machinery intensive

Silage Fermentation Process – review chart
O2 + CH2O  CO2 + H2O + Heat

Feed Identification Concentrates- <18% fiber, ~70% TDN Whole corn- <10% CP, energy feed (cereal grain), most widely used cereal grain, Zein: protein in endosperm of corn that constitutes half of the kernels’ protein, highest TDN and DE of cereal grains Cracked corn- energy feed (cereal grain), low in protein Flaked (steam, rolled) corn- energy feed, low protein; Whole oat- <10% CP, energy feed (cereal grain), lower in digestibility that crimped oats (coarse hull which decreases digestibility due to high fiber content) Crimped oat- energy feed, cereal grain, low protein content (12.8% CP), increase digestibility compared to whole oats due to removal of hull by processing Whole barley- 13% CP, energy feed, cereal grain, low…