Labeling theory was quite popular in the 1960s and early 1970s, but then fell into decline, partly as a result of the mixed results of research. Some studies found that being officially labeled a delinquent increased crime, while other studies did not (Rank p.55). Recent work, however, has revised the theory to take into account past problems. In doing so, researchers became more interested in informal influences like teachers and parents. Research shows teachers and parents have a significant role to play in the life of a juvenile and they way they socially develop (Siegel p. 163). Teachers are around juveniles for a substancial part of their lives and are able to impart positive and negative behaviors in their minds. Many juveniles confide in their teachers about family issues, and look to their teachers for help. Parents have the role of imparting stability in the lives of their adolescents. Home is where self-esteem is established and where values are learned. Adolescents need to be able to have a stable living environment to fight off the negative influences they face in schools and around their peers. If the home of an adolescent is not intact and acts as a source of negative influence in the juvenile’s life, their home situation can feed into the labeling cycle. Different data provide support for these arguments.
John Braithwaite pushes the envelope of labeling theory by