Lance Armstrong was born on the 8th of September, 1971 in Plano, Texas. At the age of 16 he became a professional triathlete and in 1989, the U.S. Olympic development team invited him to train as a cyclist. In the World Championship Road Race, he placed 11th, with the best time of any American since 1976. From 1999 to 2005, Lance Armstrong won seven consecutive Tour de France titles and was a significant inspiration to others with his testicular cancer survival. However, in 2012 the U.S Anti-Doping Agency confiscated his seven Tour titles as well as other honours he received from 1999 to 2005. As well as this, they banned him from cycling for life, concluding that Armstrong had used illegal performance-enhancing substances during those years. Armstrong denied the claims for several months however, in January 2013 he finally admitted to doping throughout his cycling career.
How successful was the athlete while using PED's?
During his career, it has been discovered that Lance Armstrong abused performance enhancing drugs including EPO, andriol, cortisone and actovegin.
EPO was used by Armstrong and his team to boost red-blood cell production and improve endurance and increase oxygen flow. By using sterile saline solution (similar to tears, blood and other body fluids) to lower hematocrit levels (the amount of blood consisting of red blood cells) they were able to avoid detection. It was also reported that at one stage, makeup was applied to Armstrong's upper arm to hide bruising from an injection. Also, Armstrong used andriol, commonly referred to as liquid testosterone, which was taken orally. During the 1999 Tour, he squirted the "oil" into his mouth after a stage, boosting his power. Also during the same Tour, Armstrong illegally used cortisone; a prescription steroid which reduces pain and inflammation. He tested positive for the drug however, charges were avoided due to the team providing backdated prescriptions for cortisone cream for previous saddle soreness. A year later, in the 2000 Tour, Armstrong’s team claimed they saw him administer the anti-diabetes drug, actovegin the night before the race to improve oxygen delivery to the muscles.
What benefits/ endorsements/ sponsorships/ salaries were gained and lost as a result of the PED use?
On October 18th, 2012 Lance Armstrong lost 8 of his 11 sponsors in one day. These sponsors included Nike, Honey Stinger, Trek, Easton-Bell Sports, 24 Hour Fitness, Anheuser-Busch, RadioShack and Oakley. Nike, being his greatest sponsor since 1996 at the time stated; "Due to the seemingly insurmountable evidence that Lance Armstrong participated in doping and misled Nike for more than a decade, it is with great sadness that we have terminated our contract with him. Nike does not condone the use of illegal performance-enhancing drugs in any manner.” Due to the loss