Language Test Notes Essay example

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Study Guide for Test 3 – Chapters 5 & 6
Chapter 5 - Language
Vocabulary
Creole Language

The language that results from the mixing of a colonizer language with the indigenous language of the people being dominated. It usually adopts to the language of the dominant group, making changes such as grammar or adding words

Literary Tradition

A language that is written as well as spoken.

Dialect

A regional variety of language distinguished by vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation. They often reflect distinguished features of the environment in which the groups live. There are several dialects in the United States, the New England dialect, The Southeastern dialect, and Midlands dialect. Social class, background, political, and religion all effect dialect. Boundaries such as mountains effect dialogs of certain places. Food, objects from everyday activities, and rural life affect dialog.

Ideograms

Describe an idea. An example would be Chinese, Japanese, Sumerian, and Egyptian. They all have a phonetic component.

Isolated Language

A language that is unrelated to any other language. Therefore, is not attached to any other language family.

Language Family, Branch, and Group

Language family is the collection of languages related through a common ancestral language that existed long before recorded history. Language branch is a collection of languages within a family related through common ancestral language that existed several thousands of years ago. The difference between branch and family are not as expensive or old as language families and archaeological evidence can confirm the branches derived from the same family. The language group is a collection of languages within a branch that share a common origin in the relativity recent past and display similar vocab and grammar

Lingua Franca

A language mutually understood and commonly used in trade by people who have different native languages. It usually mixes elements of the two languages into a simple common language. The term means language of the Franks. It was applied by Arab traders during the Middle Ages to communicate with Europeans who they called Franks. Many people learn English to anticipate the global economy and culture.

Extinct languages

A language that was once used by people in daily activities but is not longer used. There are nearly 500 languages that are extinct because there are few elders speaking and not teaching their children. Many of these languages that are extinct in the United States were once used by Native Americans.

Endangered languages

There were 10-15 thousand around 300 B.C. Now there are 6 thousand left and more than half of these languages will be gone by 2100. All but 500 languages will be left. An example of this would be the Celtic language, they were on the verge of dying out but now it is revived.

Concepts
Development of Romance languages – be able to name at least three.

The romance branch is the Latin spoken language. Portuguese, French, Italian, and Spanish are the most widely used romance languages. Romance branch. Spoken primarily in southwestern Europe and Latin America. Most widely used are Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Italian. Regions where spoken languages tend to correspond to the political boundaries of Spain, Portugal, France, and Italy. The development of vulgar Latin it comes from the Latin word referring to, the masses of populace it was introduced by the soldiers that were stationed throughout the empire.

Development of English – Germanic roots, Norman invasion, language family, language branch, language group.

Modern English has evolved primarily from the language spoken by three Germanic tribes invading the British Isles.1) Angles- from southern Denmark 2) Jutes- from northern Denmark 3) Saxons- from northwestern Germany. The angles came from the corner or angel of Germany; this is where the word Anglo-Saxon comes from. The Vikings from…