RADIOLOGY, ULTRASOUND, AND IMAGING PROCEDURES
ARTHROGRAPHY: X-ray examination of the inside of the joint with a contrast medium.
BARIUM TEST: X-rays examinations with a liquid barium mixture that is swallowed or given by enema to outline the surface of gastrointestinal tract.
CHEST X-RAY: An x-ray image of chest walls, lungs, and heart.
CYSTOGRAPHY: X-ray recording of the urinary bladder with contrast medium so that the outline of the urinary bladder can be seen clearly.
DIGITAL SUBTRACTION ANGIOGRAPHY: A unique x-ray technique for viewing blood vessels by taking two images and subtracting one from the other.
DOPPLER ULTRASOUND: Technique that focuses sound waves on blood vessels and measures blood flow as echoes bounce off red blood cells.
ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY: Imaging of the heart by introducing high frequency sound waves through the chest into the heart. The sound waves are reflected back from the heart, and echoes showing heart structure are displayed on a recording machine
GALL BLADDER ULTRASOUND: Sound waves are used to visualize gallstones. This procedure has replaced the x-ray test known as cholecystography.
FLUROSCOPY: An x-ray examination that uses a fluorescent screen rather than a photographic plate to show images of the body in motion.
MYELOGRAPHY: X-ray recording of the spinal cord after injection of contrast. This procedure has been largely replaced by MRI for detecting tumor or ruptured “slipped” disks between vertebrae (backbone).
NUCLEAR MEDICINE: RADIONUCIDE SCANS
BONE SCAN: A radioactive substance (usually a TECHNETIUM isotope) is injected intravenously, and its uptake in bones is detected by increased uptake of the radioactive material in the areas of lesions.
BRAIN SCAN: A radioactive substance is injected intravenously. It collect in any lesion that disturb the natural barrier that exists between blood vessel and normal brain tissue (blood-brain barrier), allowing the radioactive substance to enter the brain tissue.
GALLIUM SCAN: Radioactive gallium (gallium citrate) is injected into the bloodstream and is detected in the body with a scanning device that produces an imaging of the area where gallium collects.
MUGA SCAN: Test that uses radioactive technetium to measure the rate of cardiac output of blood by a multiple-gated acquisition (MUGA) technique.
POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY: A radioactive substance (usually an isotope incorporated into a sugar like molecule) that releases radioactive particles called positrons is injected and travels to specialized areas of the body.
PULMONARY PERFUSION SCAN: Radioactive particles are injected intravenously and travel rapidly to areas of the lung that are adequately filled with blood.
PULMONARY VENTILATION SCAN: radioactive gas is inhaled, and a special camera detects its presence in the lungs. The scan is used to detect lung segments that fail to fill with the radioactive gas.
PULMONARY VENTILATION- PERFUSION SCAN: V/Q scan: Ventilation and perfusion scans are performed together. If ventilation is occurring in a segment that is not perfused, the mismatch implies a pulmonary embolism.
TECHNETIUM TC-99 SESTAMIBI SCAN: Sestamibi, tagged with technetium-99, is injected, and the radioactivity is not taken up in areas of decreased blood flow (ischemia).
THYROID SCAN AND UPTAKE: In a thyroid scan, radioactive iodine (radiotracer) is injected intravenously, or swallowed and then collects in the thyroid gland.
ASPIRATION: Withdrawal of fluids by suction through a needle or tube.
AUDIOMETERY: Test using sound waves of various frequencies to quantify the extent and type of hearing loss.
BIOSPY: Removal of a piece of tissue from the body for subsequent examination under a microscope.
COLPOSCOPY: Inspection of the vagina and cervix through a special microscope.
CYSTOSCOPY: Visual examination of