There five steps for ethical analysis. a. Identify and describe clearly the facts. Find out who did what to whom, and where, when, and how. In many instances, you will be surprised at the errors in the initially reported facts, and often you will find that simply getting the facts straight helps define the solution. It also helps to get the opposing parties involved in an ethical dilemma to agree on the facts. b. Define the conflict and identify the higher-order values involved. Ethical, social and political issues always reference higher values. The parties to a dispute all claim to be pursuing higher values. Typically, an ethical issue involves a dilemma: two diametrically opposed courses of action that support worthwhile values. c. Identify the stakeholders. Every ethical, social, and political issue has stakeholders: players in the game who have an interest in outcome, who have invested in the situation and usually who have opinions. Find out the identity of these groups and what they want. This will be useful later when designing a solution. d. Identify the options that you can reasonably take. You may find that none of the options satisfy all the interests involved, but that some options do a better job than others. Sometimes arriving at a good or ethical solution may not always be a balancing of consequences to stakeholder. e. Identify the potential consequences of your options. Some options may be ethically correct but disastrous from other points of view. Other options may work in one instance but in other similar instances. Always ask yourself, “what if I choose this option consistently over time?”
There are six ethical principles for judging conduct. a. Golden rule: do unto others as you would have them do unto you b. Immanuel Kant’s categorical imperative rule: if an action is not right to everyone to take, it is not right to anyone. c. Descartes’ rule of change: if an action cannot be taken repeatedly, it is not right to take at all d. Utilitarian principle: that the action that achieves the higher or greater value. e. Risk aversion principle: take the action that produces the lease harm or the lease potential cost. f. No free lunch rule: assume that virtually all tangible and in tangible objects are owned by someone else unless there is a specific declaration otherwise. If something someone else has created is useful to you, it has value, and you should assume the creator wants compensation for this work.
4. How have information systems affected everyday life?
It is too difficult to eradicate errors in large computer system. Computer errors can cause serious harm to individuals and organizations. The existing laws and social practices are often unable to establish liability and accountability for these problems.
Computer errors can cause serious harm to individuals and organizations; Poor data quality is responsible for disruptions and losses for business
Poor data quality is responsible for disruptions and losses for business; jobs can be lost when computers replace workers or tasks become unnecessary in reengineered business processes; the ability to own and use a computer may be exacerbating socioeconomic disparities among different racial groups and social classes; widespread use of computers increases opportunities for computer crime and computer abuse.
Computer can also create health problems. Repetitive stress injury (RIS) occurs when muscle groups are forced through repetitive actions often with high-impact loads or tens of thousands of repetitions under low-impact loads. It is the leading occupational disease today. The single largest cause of RIS is computer keyboard work.
The newest computer-related malady is tecnostress, which is stress included by computer use. Its symptoms include aggravation, hostility toward humans, impatience and fatigue. Technostress is