TRAINING IN ORGANIZATIONS (CHAPTER ONE)
Training process model
Employee capabilities are analyzed and responded to in a rational, logical, strategic manner. The Addie model is an acronym for the major process of training and is as follows:
We use this model as a basis for our models.
(Training process model will be on separate piece of paper.)
But has the framework of the following:
Needs Analysis Phase (input->process->output): This stage begins with identifying the OPG (organizational performance gap) things such as profitability shortfalls, low levels of customer satisfaction, inadequate knowledge or excessive scrap are all examples of a OPG.
Design Phase (input->process->output): the training needs identified in the TNA (needs analysis phase) as well as the areas of constraint and support, are the inputs for the design phase. The most important part of the design phase is the creation of training objectives. These provide direction for what will be trained and how. They specify the employee outcomes etc. etc. another part of this process is determining how the organizational constraints will be dealt with.
Developmental Phase (input->process->output): is the process of using the guidelines form the design phase to create an instructional strategy that will meet the training objectives which are also addressed in the design phase. An instructional strategy describes the order, timing and combination of methods to be used in the training program to meet the objectives.
Implementation Phase (input->process->output): all the previous phases come together in the implementation phase. Its useful to conduct test or dry runs before actually implementing a program.
Evaluation Phase (input->process->output): inputs for this stage are derived from the design phase. Two types of evaluation are useful; first, process evaluation: determines how well a particular training process achieved its objectives (outputs). Outcome evaluation is the evaluation conducted at the end of training to determine the effects of training on the trainee, the job, and the organization.
In the near future there is going to be an expected labor shortage of all types of labor. When this occurs it is important for business to secure workers with the right skill sets and baby boomers with the highest knowledge will be the ones most likely to leave the workforce as they will have higher levels of retirement income.
It is estimated that more than 75% of the workforce needs retraining just to keep up with the changes in their current jobs.
By 2020 there will be an estimated shortage of 20 million workers these are the most valuable jobs in terms of economic value.
Learning means a relatively permanent change in cognition that results from experience and directly influences behavior.
Learning refers to: the 3 types of knowledge; declarative/procedural/strategic
The information we acquire and place into memory (declarative)
How the information is organized for use in our brains (procedural)
Our understanding of how, when, and why this information is used and is useful (strategic)
At one time KSA'S were known to be knowledge, skills, and abilities but because this was a redundant phrase it has now been known that the only difference between the words was a variance of heredity.
We will define KSA'S as: Knowledge, Skills and attitudes.
Knowledge is an organized body of acts, principles, procedures and information acquired over a period of time.
A skill is a proficiency in knowing how to do something rather than just knowing how to do it. By skills we mean the capacities needed to perform a set of tasks. These capacities are