, former name given to a people who were said to speak an archaic
IndoEuropean language and who were thought to have settled in prehistoric times in ancient Iran and the northern Indian subcontinent. The theory of an
Aryan race” appeared in the mid19th century and remained prevalent until the mid20th century.
Aryan is an english language loanword derived from the
('noble').The term ārya 1.
was used as an ethnic selfdesignation by the
tribes in the ancient times. It was believed in the 19th century that it was also a selfdesignation used by all
, a theory that has now been abandoned.
. additional territory considered by a nation, especially Nazi
Germany, to be necessary for national survival or for the expansion of trade. any additional space needed in order to act, function, etc.
In German history, Lebensraum (“living space”) was a racist ideology that proposed the aggressive, territorial expansion of Germany. Originally a biology term for “ habitat ”, the publicists for the
as a concept of nationalism that
became a geopolitical goal of Imperial Germany in the
First World War
(1914–1918). In the post-war
(1919–1933) the concept and the term were features of German ultra-nationalism, and later, during the
, was an ideological