Essay on Lecture 12

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Chapter 12 Alcohols, Thiols, Ethers,
Aldehydes, and Ketones
Anesthesia is typically administered by a nurse anesthetist who provides care before, during, and after a medical procedure. A nurse anesthetist gives medications to keep a patient asleep and pain-free while monitoring the patient’s vital signs.

Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Twelfth Edition

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

12.1 Alcohols, Phenols, Thiols, and
Ethers
Functional groups such as
• an alcohol contain a hydroxyl group (—OH)
• a phenol contain a hydroxyl group
(—OH) bonded to a benzene ring
• a thiol contain an —SH group
• an ether contain a C—O—C group

OH

CH3 OH

Phenol

Methanol

CH3 O CH3
Ether

CH3 CH2 SH
Thiol

Learning Goal Give the IUPAC and common names for alcohols and phenols; give the common names for thiols and ethers. Draw their condensed structural formulas or skeletal formulas.
Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Twelfth Edition

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Naming Alcohols
The names of alcohols
• in the IUPAC system replace the e with ol
• with common names use the name of the alkyl group followed by alcohol

Core Chemistry Skill Naming Alcohols and Phenols
Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Twelfth Edition

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Naming of Alcohols
Give the IUPAC name for the following compound:

CH3
CH3 —CH—CH2

CH2

OH
CH

CH3

5-methyl-2-hexanol
Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Twelfth Edition

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Study Check
Give the IUPAC name for the following compounds:
CH3

A.
CH3

B. Br

CH

OH
CH2

CH

CH3

OH

A. 4-methyl-2-pentanol
B. 3-bromophenol
Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Twelfth Edition

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chemistry Link to Health:
Alcohols and Phenols
Ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
• has been known since prehistoric times as an intoxicating product
• is formed by the fermentation:
Fermentation

C6H12O6

2CH3—CH2—OH + 2 CO2

Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Twelfth Edition

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chemistry Link to Health:
Alcohols and Phenols
Ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
• is produced by reacting ethene and water at high temperatures and pressures for commercial use
• is used as a solvent for perfumes, varnishes, and some medicines, such as tincture of iodine
H2C

CH2 + H2O

CH3—CH2—OH

Ethene Alcohol

Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Twelfth Edition

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chemistry Link to Health:
Alcohols and Phenols
1,2,3-propanetriol (glycerol)
• is a trihydroxy alcohol
OH
OH
OH
• is a viscous liquid obtained from oils and fats during the production
CH2
CH
CH2
of soaps
• has three polar —OH groups that account for its strong attraction to water molecules
• is used as a skin softener in products such as skin lotions, cosmetics, shaving creams, and liquid soaps

Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Twelfth Edition

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chemistry Link to Health:
Alcohols and Phenols
Ethylene glycol is used
OH
HO
• as an antifreeze in heating and
H C C H cooling systems
H
H
• as a solvent for paints, inks, and plastics
• in the production of synthetic fibers such as Dacron

Chemistry: An Introduction to General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry, Twelfth Edition

© 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.

Chemistry Link to Health:
Alcohols and Phenols
• Bisphenol A (BPA) is used to make polycarbonate, a clear plastic that is used to manufacture beverage bottles, including baby bottles.
• Washing polycarbonate bottles with certain detergents or at high temperatures disrupts the polymer, causing small amounts of BPA to leach from the bottles.

CH3
HO

C

OH

CH3
Chemistry: An Introduction to General,…