lecture exam 1 study guide Essay

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Chapter # 1. ALAGIA BIO 144
Organ system:
1. What are the levels of organization in the human body? What is the sequence of order?
Chemical: atoms and molecules – Cellular: Molecules combine to form cells, the basic structural and functional units of an organism that are composed of chemicals. – Tissue: are groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function – Organ: are structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues – System: consists of related organs with a common function. – Organismal: All the parts of the human body functioning together constitute the total organism.
2. Define organ, tissue, cell and system.
Organ: structures that are composed of two or more different types of tissues; they have specific functions and usually have recognizable shapes.
Tissue: Tissues are groups of cells and the materials surrounding them that work together to perform a particular function.
Cell: Molecules combine to form cells, the basic structural and functional units of an organism that are composed of chemicals.
System: consists of related organs with a common function.
3. What are the 4 tissue types? How do you differentiate between tissue types?
Epithelial tissue, connective tissue, muscular tissue, and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissue covers body surfaces, lines hollow organs and cavities, and forms glands. Connective tissue connects, supports, and protects body organs while distributing blood vessels to other tissues. Muscular tissue contracts to make body parts move and generates heat. Nervous tissue carries information from one part of the body to another through nerve impulses.
4. What are the different body cavities? Locate the body cavities for the following organs: Brain, spinal cord, lungs, heart, stomach, liver, uterus, kidneys, testes.
Cranial cavity - Brain. Vertebral Canal – Spinal Cord. Thoracic Cavity (pleural, pericardial, mediastinum cavities) Pleural- lung. Mediastinum- heart. Abdominopelvic Cavity (abdominal and pelvic) abdominal – stomach, liver. Pelvic cavity- urinary bladder, internal reproductive organs
5. Name the types of fluids found within the human body? Define each.
Body fluids, dilute, watery solutions containing dissolved chemicals that are found inside cells as well as surrounding them.
The fluid within cells is intracellular fluid abbreviated ICF. The fluid outside body cells is extracellular fluid abbreviated ECF. The ECF that fills the narrow spaces between cells of tissues is known as interstitial fluid. ECF within blood vessels is termed blood plasma, within lymphatic vessels it is called lymph, in and around the brain and spinal cord it is known as cerebrospinal fluid, in joints it is referred to as synovial fluid, and the ECF of the eyes is called aqueous humor and vitreous body.
6. Define the four major types of anatomical planes.
Mid-sagittal: vertical plane passing through the midline of the body/organ
Parasagittal: vertical plane that does not pass through midline, thus divides body into unequal left/ride sides.
Frontal: plane that divides the body/organ into anterior and posterior parts
Transverse: plane that divides the body or organ into superior/inferior portions
7. Define the following areas of the human body: Cephalic, cervical, thoracic, abdominal, gluteal, pelvic, inguinal, femoral, crural, pedal, brachial.
Cephalic – head. Cervical – Neck. Thoracic – chest. Abdominal – abdomen. Gluteal – buttock. Pelvic – pelvis. Inguinal – groin. Femoral – thigh. Crural – leg. Pedal – foot. Brachial – arm.
8. Define the following terms in relation to anatomical positioning and be able to use them in a sentence to describe: lateral-medial, proximal-distal, ventral-dorsal, superior-inferior.

10. What is homeostasis? Define the following components of a feed back loop: stimulus, receptor, control center, effector.
Homeostasis is the condition of equilibrium (balance) in the body’s…