The theory focus on the needs for organizations to relate rewards to performance and to make sure that that the rewards are deserved and wanted by the employee.
The first key component of the expectancy theory is valence .The term refers to the the desire of a certain outcome by an individual worker. Workers receive different desirable outcome for their work like pay job security benefits feelings of accomplishment and promotions .Valence can either be positive or negative and can vary also in size and magnitude. The magnitude of valence is how much does the worker desire a certain outcome .Motivation problems happen because high valence expectancy may be unavailable to the worker at certain times. The availability of this kind of high valence expectancy and opportunity presence is a very important motivational factor for workers and its performance. Valence must be high when performing at a high level workers need to get what they deserve .The possibility of a great outcome has to b real for the worker and the managers have to have the valence of different outcome for the worker.
The second key factor in the theory is instrumentality. instrumentality is the perception about the extent to which performance of one or more behaviors will lead to achieving that particular outcome or objective. It is fusion of a certain level of work performance and the result of a specific outcome. According to the theory an instrumentality of -1 means that worker perceive work performance would definitely not result in the desired outcome. an instrumentality of +1 means that the worker perceives that work performance would definitely result in obtaining the outcome wanted .
An instrumentality of zero means that a worker sees no relationship between work performance and outcome . Instrumentality that are high and workers believe are high are very good motivators. When workers believe that high performance will not lead to the desired outcome they will not be motivated to work as hard as they can .Managers need to make sure that workers that work at a high level receive desired outcome with high positive valence .Instrumentality must be high for the worker to