Q1. Explain what is meant by the term blood glucose.
Blood glucose: The main sugar that the body makes from the food in the diet. Glucose is carried through the bloodstream to provide energy to all cells in the body. Cells cannot use glucose without the help of insulin.
Glucose is a simple sugar. The body produces it from protein, fat and, in large parts of, carbohydrate. Ingested glucose is absorbed directly into the blood from the intestine and results in a rapid increase in blood glucose. Glucose is also known as dextrose.
Q2. Describe the difference between simple carbohydrates and complex carbohydrates.
Carbohydrates are divided into two types, simple and complex. And is based on the chemical structure and reflects how quickly sugar is digested and absorbed.
Simple carbohydrates are also called simple sugars and are chemically made of one or two sugars. A simple sugar can be just what the name implies, the sugar in your sugar bowl. Things like candy, syrups, and soda pop are also straightforward examples of simple carbohydrates. They are absorbed quicker than complex carbohydrates.
Simple carbohydrates are included in foods such as fruit and milk. These are better sources of simple carbohydrates because they contain vitamins and fibre, and also important nutrients that the body needs, like calcium.
Complex carbohydrates are also known as starches and are made of three or more linked sugars. Grains such as bread, pasta, oatmeal and rice are complex carbohydrates, as well as some vegetables like broccoli, corn, kidney beans and chick peas. They take the longer to digest.
Q3.Describe what is meant by the following terms?
a) Glycaemia -- means the presence, or the level, of glucose in one's blood. b) Hypoglycaemia- is defined as a low blood sugar (glucose) level. Hyperglycaemia is defined as too high a blood sugar (glucose) level. c) Hyperglycaemia is when there is a high level of blood sugar (Glucose).
Q4 Describe the pre-diabetic states.
Pre-diabetes state is when some but not all of the diagnostic criteria for diabetes are met. It is often described as the “grey area” between normal blood sugar and diabetic levels.
Q5 Describe how insulin is produced by the body.
Insulin is a hormone made up of a small polypeptide protein that is secreted by the pancreas, which acts as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. Endocrine glands are the system of glands that secrete hormones to regulate body functions. Exocrine glands aid in digestion.
Q6 Explain how insulin affects blood glucose levels.
Insulin allows glucose to get into the body's cells for energy or storage. Without insulin the glucose remains in the blood stream and can not get into the cells.
Q7 Describe what is meant by the term insulin resistance?
Insulin resistance is not a disease as such but rather a state or condition in which a person's body tissues have a lowered level of response to insulin, a hormone secreted by the pancreas that helps to regulate the level of glucose (sugar) in the body. As a result, the person's body produces larger quantities of insulin to maintain normal levels of glucose in the blood. There is considerable individual variation in sensitivity to insulin within the general population, with the most insulin-sensitive persons being as much as six times as sensitive to the hormone as those identified as most resistant
Q8 Describe what is meant by the term diabetes
. Diabetes, often referred to by doctors as diabetes mellitus, describes a group of metabolic diseases in which the person has high blood glucose (blood sugar), either because insulin production is inadequate, or because the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, or both. Patients with high blood sugar will typically experience polyuria (frequent urination), they will become increasingly thirsty (polydipsia) and hungry (polyphagia).
Q9 Outline the key features of type 1 diabetes
The key features of diabetes that are