Hypothesis: Is Archimedes one of the greatest minds of classical antiquity?

Archimedes, born 287 BC in Syracuse, Sicily, is widely regarded as a historic genius, but why is that? Archimedes did work in various fields of mathematics and science which truly excelled the ideas and minds of those around him, not only did Archimedes excel in the theoretical field of work but he was also renowned for his inventions and breakthroughs with mechanical devices. Archimedes has gone down as one of three greatest mathematicians of all time, alongside Isaac Newton (English 1643-1727) and Carl Friedrich Gauss (German 1777-1855).

Lever: Archimedes was fascinated on how levers worked. How could such a small force move such a large object? After many years of research Archimedes had discovered how a lever worked and the parts of the lever. The three parts: The fulcrum, the lever and the two weights. His final conclusion was “the ratio of the weight moved to the weight moving it is the inverse ratio of the distances from the centre”. This means that if you get a ratio of weight to distance, the amount needed to move the larger weight is the inverse of the smaller one. This discovery was vital to every mechanical device that ever has been or will be used.

Archimedes Screw: The Archimedes screw is a hollow tube which contained a spiral that could be continuously turned. Irrigation in the ancient times was a laborious task involving buckets and heavy labour. With the invention of the Archimedes screw transporting water had become a faster and less intense job. This increase in efficiency provided healthier crops with higher yield. The Archimedes screw was said to be invented after a king had problems of ships taking in water and being too difficult to bail.

Archimedes Death Ray: A myth exists of Archimedes designing and built a ray that could repel. It is debated how he did this. The two methods believed to be most accurate include a large hexagonal frame with mirrors which were adjustable to make the focal point targeted at the ships. The other, less glamorous way, were hundreds of troops each being given a mirror and being told to aim at each of the Greek invading ships. The story, however, is greatly regarded as myth. This recount tells the story of the Death Ray “Afterwards, when the beams were reflected in the mirror, a fearful kindling of fire was raised in the ships, and at the distance of a bow-shot he turned them into ashes” by John Tzetzes (circa twelfth century AD) Book II, Lines 118-128.

Archimedes Claw: Around the age of Archimedes Greece was being sieged by sea continuously. Luckily they had the father of mechanical maths on their side. Once again Archimedes aided his a claw. The hook was launched by mean of transferal of kinetic energy and was aimed behind the enemy country with another ingenious invention. The new invention was a mixture of a trebuchet and ships. As a group of men used a system of pullies to attach to hole to the hull of the ship which was made for oars. The pullies enabled a small group of men to capsize a large ship. This was another revolutionary thought that changed the military conclusion of the battle.

Work on Hydrostatics: Archimedes made his famous quote “Eureka” while working on hydrostatics, a field of science. Archimedes was faced by King Hierro II. He had a suspicion that his crown was not only gold, but also a mixture of silver, which was not acceptable. The king gave Archimedes the task of solving this problem. How could he do such a thing? One day while bathing, Archimedes sunk into his tub and noticed that the water level was raised when he submerged himself. Further study lead to the discovery of the Archimedes principle. This principle stated that the amount of water displaced (in mL) is equal to the amount of weight lost (in grams). Archimedes found the volume of the crown and weight in grams. By dividing the weight of