There are many of us who believe that an individual’s behavior and personality is simply based on perhaps their experiences in life or even to some folklore. But this is not so to people who study lifespan development. Sigmund Freud, Eric Erickson, and Jean Piget are some who beg to differ. All three have different perspectives on this controversial topic, which they all break their own theories down in a very different approach. Sigmund Freud born 1856 and died 1939 was a man who believed that a human’s personality and behavior is based on a term called psychodynamic perspective. This would come from inner sources such as memories which would conflict with what a person would have little awareness or control over. This type of inner awareness is believed to come from ones childhood experiences and then get passed forward into adulthood. He explains how a person’s unconsciousness is a huge part of their personality, with regard to a person’s dreams, wishes, desires, and demands. Sigmund Freud has three aspects which he believes that play a big role in the effect of people’s personalities. Id, ego, and superego. Id is what he says occurs at birth and focuses on hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses. When this happens, it is what is called the pleasure principle. This is targeted in reducing a person’s tension and increasing satisfaction. The second aspect is a person’s ego. This is believed to be a part of a person’s personality, whether it is rational or reasonable. It is influenced by the real world outside of us. The third aspect is superego. This is part of a person’s conscience. By influences on a person’s sense of what is wrong or right, this usually happens at around the age of five or six. This can be impacted by the individual’s role models such as parents, teachers, or someone the individual is around or looks up to. There are stages of what Sigmund refers to as psychosexual, which are also ways that shape an individual’s behavior. From birth to 18 months it is called the oral stage. From18 months to 3 years Anal, and from 3 to 6 years old phallic. From 6 years on, Latency and from adolescence to adult hood is called genital. These theories suggest what happens simply from oral stage at birth will impact a person in later years of adolescences to adult hood. Therefore it is believed by Sigmund Freud that influences such as these, are shaped into our everyday behaviors and personalities. Eric Erickson, who lived from 1902 to 1994; has his own theories on how individuals are shaped to their behaviors. His perception is based on society and cultural challenge. This type of theory is called psychosocial development. Erikson believes that developmental change happens throughout our lives. It consists of eight different stages, much like Sigmund’s stages of development. Erickson also based people on the same age frame of development, but his theory is based on psychosocial development. Psychosocial development is looked at as things such as trust vs. mistrust, which occurs through the birth stage to 18 months. From 18 months to 3 years, it is autonomy vs. shame and doubt. From 3years to adolescence it is identity vs. role diffusion. Generativity vs. stagnation falls in middle adult hood, and ego-integrity vs. despair fall in late adulthood. Although these stages have positive and negative out comes, for some people theses types of theories are hard to get a full understanding and belief. For both Sigmund and Erickson theses…
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2b Application: A researcher wants to find out if children enrolled in child-care centers in the first few years of life do as well in school as those who are not in child care. What developmental design is appropriate for answering this question? Explain.
(a) The developmental design that’s appropriate is using the clinical or case study method. The clinical/ case study method is combining interviews, observations, test scores, and sometimes psycho-physiological assessments…
DEVELOPMENTAL PSYCHOLOGY JOURNAL
1.Yesterday, I came to visit my friend. She had to baby sit her 9 month old niece. I was watching my friend playing with her niece. She showed the baby a small teddy bear and then hid it under the blanket, the baby started to use her hand to touch the blanket to search for the teddy bear. This reminded me of Piaget’s Sensorimotor stage, achievement of object permanence.
2. Last weekend, my family went out for a dinner, across from our table…
Interviews in Developmental Psychology
1. Yes, I attended to high school when I was a teenager. Since I was a little kid I remember my parents telling me how important was to study if I wanted a better life and future so yes, I wanted to go to high school, those words motivated me all my life. I studied Math, Spanish, Science and some others subjects that I don’t really remember but those were the most important. We had some different kinds of projects and questions about our lessons. Just…
Lifespan Developmental Psychology
Ch. 1 Development through Lifespan
* Constantly change and evolve
* Some consistency, some things stay the same
* Scientific = based on research, believe in data and research, young science
* Applied = more applied, prevention and intervention, social policy, government programs, education reform
* Interdisciplinary = don’t hold all knowledge, all areas can inform the study, open to the complexities of real life, better understanding…
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under a Paediatrician at QEQM Hospital. To date, Rosie appears to be fee from these
conditions. However, Mary Sheridan’s Milestone’s suggests that she may have had a
developmental delay, at an earlier age with fine and gross motor skills, (Sheridan, 1973,
p.13). Rosie attended a local Nursery at the age of 3 and started primary school at 4 years,
3 months and is currently ranked 25/28 youngest in her class and set in the…
additional support assists children with down syndrome compared with standard children at a similar level in terms of their learning abilities. It involved 8 disabled and 8 non-disabled children, not necessarily on the same age level, but on the same developmental level, matched with similar task competence. The task involved placing objects on a copy of a farmyard in the same position they sat on the model. Both the copy and the model were placed next to one another on the table, with the child placed in…
Development delay is when a child has not learnt the expected skill at that time point. For example a child would be expected to walk between 9 and 15 months. So if the child cannot walk by 20 months they would be considered to have a developmental delay.
What causes a developmental delay?
There are 2 factors
• Biological – such as genetic or chromosomal abnormalities (Downs Syndrome) or illness and disease.
• Social – such as a child’s life experiences or exposure to harmful chemicals or…
Piaget said “It is with children that we have the best chance of studying the development of logical knowledge, mathematical knowledge, physical knowledge, and so forth.” ‘Jean Piaget’ – (best knowledge, children.) Piaget’s theory identified four developmental stages these are: sensorimotor stage (birth-2 years)
Pre-operational stage (2-7 years)
Concrete operations (7-11 years)
Formal operations (beginning of ages 11-15 years)
He believed a child constantly learns from their environment and from…