Essay on Lifespan: Developmental Psychology and Eric Erickson

Submitted By JackSterrojo
Words: 883
Pages: 4

There are many of us who believe that an individual’s behavior and personality is simply based on perhaps their experiences in life or even to some folklore. But this is not so to people who study lifespan development. Sigmund Freud, Eric Erickson, and Jean Piget are some who beg to differ. All three have different perspectives on this controversial topic, which they all break their own theories down in a very different approach. Sigmund Freud born 1856 and died 1939 was a man who believed that a human’s personality and behavior is based on a term called psychodynamic perspective. This would come from inner sources such as memories which would conflict with what a person would have little awareness or control over. This type of inner awareness is believed to come from ones childhood experiences and then get passed forward into adulthood. He explains how a person’s unconsciousness is a huge part of their personality, with regard to a person’s dreams, wishes, desires, and demands. Sigmund Freud has three aspects which he believes that play a big role in the effect of people’s personalities. Id, ego, and superego. Id is what he says occurs at birth and focuses on hunger, sex, aggression, and irrational impulses. When this happens, it is what is called the pleasure principle. This is targeted in reducing a person’s tension and increasing satisfaction. The second aspect is a person’s ego. This is believed to be a part of a person’s personality, whether it is rational or reasonable. It is influenced by the real world outside of us. The third aspect is superego. This is part of a person’s conscience. By influences on a person’s sense of what is wrong or right, this usually happens at around the age of five or six. This can be impacted by the individual’s role models such as parents, teachers, or someone the individual is around or looks up to. There are stages of what Sigmund refers to as psychosexual, which are also ways that shape an individual’s behavior. From birth to 18 months it is called the oral stage. From18 months to 3 years Anal, and from 3 to 6 years old phallic. From 6 years on, Latency and from adolescence to adult hood is called genital. These theories suggest what happens simply from oral stage at birth will impact a person in later years of adolescences to adult hood. Therefore it is believed by Sigmund Freud that influences such as these, are shaped into our everyday behaviors and personalities. Eric Erickson, who lived from 1902 to 1994; has his own theories on how individuals are shaped to their behaviors. His perception is based on society and cultural challenge. This type of theory is called psychosocial development. Erikson believes that developmental change happens throughout our lives. It consists of eight different stages, much like Sigmund’s stages of development. Erickson also based people on the same age frame of development, but his theory is based on psychosocial development. Psychosocial development is looked at as things such as trust vs. mistrust, which occurs through the birth stage to 18 months. From 18 months to 3 years, it is autonomy vs. shame and doubt. From 3years to adolescence it is identity vs. role diffusion. Generativity vs. stagnation falls in middle adult hood, and ego-integrity vs. despair fall in late adulthood. Although these stages have positive and negative out comes, for some people theses types of theories are hard to get a full understanding and belief. For both Sigmund and Erickson theses