Essay on lifespan notes chapter 8

Submitted By Morgan-Crabb
Words: 4617
Pages: 19

Berk Chapter 8 Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood Morgan Crabb SECTION 1chp5-8 ERIKSONS THEORY AND SELF-UNDERSTANDING 1. What is the focus of Eriksons initiative vs. guilt stage It is described as a period of unfolding once children has a sense of autonomy, they become less contrary than they were as toddlers. Their energies are freed for tackling the psychological conflict of the preschool years initiative versus guilt. As the word imitative suggests young children have a new sense of purposefulness. They are eager to tackle new tasks, join in activities with peers and discover what they can do with the help of adults. They also make strides in conscience development. 2. What is self-concept The set of attributes abilities attitudes and values that an individual believes defines who he or she is 2. A. How do young children describe themselves Preschoolers self concepts consist largely of observable characteristics such as their name physical appearance possessions and everyday behaviors . self concept who am I 3. What is self-esteem The judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments Self concept the evaluative side of yourself like am I good at this or bad at this. Athletic ability 3. A. What is young childrens self-esteem like They have difficulty distinguishing between their desired and their actual competence they usually rate their own ability as extremely high and underestimate task difficulty. Their self esteem is typically high. Parenting skills can enhance or harm self esteem EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT 4. Can you discuss changes in understanding and expression of emotion during early childhood, along with factors that influence those changes (Hint. I borrowed this question directly from Berk on p. 284. Use her summary as a starting point in fill in your response with information from pp. 258-261.) The way that Parents are and the childs temperament influence how they negative emotion and stressful situations. As self-concepts develop they experience more self-conscious emotions. Empathy becomes more common and can lead to sympathy, and results in prosocial or altruistic, behavior (actions that benefit another person without any expected reward) depending on parenting. Basic emotions-are there in infancy happy sad angry scared At preschoolers age they have good understanding of these basic emotions Preschoolers and self regulation-language helps a lot to talk themselves through things distraction is a strategy Self conscious emotions- embarrassment guilt jealous Parents help children understand self conscious emotions when they should feel a certain way or why they feel that way Empathy parents can show care and concern with kids empathy crying parent gets a bandaid or teddy bear from child What is difference between empathy and sympathy is when you feel bad or sorry for a person. Empathy is putting self into others shoes to experience the sadness someone else is experiencing PEER RELATIONS 5. Can you describe and give examples of the three types of childrens play Nonsocial activity is unoccupied, onlooker behavior and solitary play. If a child is in the room full of children playing and he or she decides to play with a toy all alone and pay no attention to others Parallel play is in which a child plays near other children with similar materials but does not try to influence their behavior. An example could be two children coloring the same picture but not paying attention as to what the colors the other child is choosing to use or how far they have come with their project True social interaction has two of the highest levels of interaction which are associative play and cooperative play Associative play Children engage in separate activities but exchange toys and comment on one anthers behavior. two or more children playing with blocks building the same thing, talking with each other but not working together to create something. Cooperative