FINAL ON: TUESDAY, MARCH 16, 2015 @ 8:30~11:00 AM
***3 IDENTIFICATION TERMS, BUT YOU ONLY CHOOSE 2!!!!!!!!!***
1. Agency loss- when an agent takes advantage of his position and uses the benefits for their own personal interests
2. Articles of confederation- America’s first Constitution that favored small state governments; states had the power to override national government decisions
3. Australian ballot- a single ballot listing all candidates regardless of party. This was a reform established during the Progressive Era. It helped to rid the nation of party machines by making it harder for politicians to keep track of bargains they made with voters to vote for their specific party
4. Bicameral- describes the system of the federal legislature where Congress is split into two different chambers: Senate and House of Representatives
5. Bill of rights- a document inserted into the Constitution with 10 amendments that claimed the freedoms of the American citizens, limitations of government power, and designated power to states and the public
6. Checks and balances- a system that allows each branch of government to impose or inhibit certain powers of the other to prevent tyranny of one branch.
8. Cognitive shortcut
9. Collective action- action or decision made collectively by a group of people to achieve a common goal
10. Commander in chief- the President who is in command and is control of the army and military forces
11. Commerce clause- gives Congress the authority to regulate foreign and domestic commerce
12. Confederation- a highly decentralized system in which states hold ultimate authority.
14. De facto segregation- segregation from practice not from law as separate but equal and Jim Crow Laws
15. Dissenting opinion- Supreme Court justices who disagree with the ruling of the Court’s majority
16. Duverger’s law
17. Enumerated powers- powers given to Congress by the Constitution[taxation, coinage of money, regulation of commerce, and provision for the national defense]
18. Executive order-Presidential directive to an executive agency establishing new policies or indicating how an existing policy is to be carried out
19. Fire alarm monitoring-organized groups can detect failures in the implementation of laws and alerts Congress
20. Free-rider problem-when a group of individual takes advantage of the benefits of a collective activity without having contributed to the manifestation of it.
21. Gerrymandering-district boundaries are drawn to give one party an advantage over the other by concentrating the population of the opponents voters in a few large districts and allowing the other to spread out and essentially “divide and conquer” to have an advantage in winning the election.
22. Going public- President engages in intensive public relations to promote policies and induce cooperation
23. Great compromise-agreement between large and small states that decided the composition of Congress. Lower chamber chosen by the people and upper selected by state legislatures. Representation in House will be proportional to population and Senate would have 2 members from each state.
25. Ideology-set of views about government and politics
26. Income inequality
27. Incumbency advantage
28. Jim crows laws(segregation laws)
29. Judicial review- authority to declare legislative and executive acts unconstitutional and therefore invalid.
30. Jungle primary- all candidates run in the same primary election regardless of political party
32. Madison- Federalist who authored the Constitution and Bill of Rights, authored the Federalist papers and was the fourth president
33. Majority rule- democratic voting when the single candidate with the most votes wins
34. New Deal Coalition
35. Originalism-original meaning or infant(?) of the Constitution
36. Party identification
37. Patronage- the practice of awarding benefits or favors in exchange for political