1. It must be made of cells, it must process information, be capable of replication/reproduction, be a product of evolution, and it must consume and use energy.
2. All organisms are made of cells, and all cells come from preexisting cells.
3. A hypothesis is an educated guess as to what the problem is, a prediction is what is observed if the hypothesis is correct.
4. All organisms are made of cells, and all cells come from preexisting cells.
5. Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen (CHON)
6. Protons, if changed change the element. Electrons, if changed creates an ion. Neutron, if changed creates an isotope.
8. Valence electrons are the total number of electrons in the outermost shell. The valence is the number of unpaired electrons in the outermost shell.
9. The Hydrogens have a like charge and repel one another.
11. The condition which occurs when the concentration of reactants and products participating in a chemical reaction exhibit no net change over time.
12. No energy input is required, entropy is increased, potential energy of product is lower than reactant.
13. Energy input required, entropy is decreased, potential energy of reactants is lower than products.
14. Chemical Bonds
15. The different physical makeup allows for different bonds to be made.
16. Lack of polarity prohibits it from interacting with water.
17. Primary structure is the unique sequence of amino acids in a protein. Secondary structure is created by hydrogen bonding between components of the peptide-bonded backbone its forms alpha helices or beta pleated sheets. Tertiary structure results from interactions between R-group ,or between R-groups and the backbone. Folding occurs.
18. Hydrogen bonding, hydrophobic interactions, van der Waals interactions, covalent bonding, and, Ionic bonding.
19. Quaternary structure
20. It is an enzyme that speeds up chemical reactions.
21. Phosphate group, a 5-carbon sugar, and a nitrogenous group
22. Primary structure consists of a sugar-phosphate backbone formed by a phosphodiester linkages. In secondary structure complimentary base pairing and hair pins form. Tertiary structure occurs when RNA folds upon itself.
23. a carbohydrate
24. They allow for movement against the concentration gradient.
25. Binding of a certain molecule or a change in electrical voltage across the membrane.
26. Small, circular, supercoiled DNA
27. Resist hypotonic environment
28. It rotates
29. Nuclear Lamina, double membrane, and has nuclear pores
30. The Rough ER secretes proteins, the Smooth ER catalyzes lipids
31. They digest damaged organelles
32. The mitochondria in animal cells and the chloroplast in plant cells contain their own DNA and grow and divide separately.
33. A ribosome docks on the Rough ER and the protein is secreted.
34. By tagging them with a sugar
35. Myosin interacts with actin and only has a head. It moves similar to an inchworm. Kinesin has two legs and a head and “walks”.
36. Gibbs Free Energy change
37. By adding a phosphate group potential energy is increased.
38. Chemical reactions that involve the gain or loss of one or more electrons
39. Electron carriers
40. Activation energy is energy required to reach transition state
41,42. Glycolysis which occurs in cytoplasm, Pyruvate Processing which occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, Citric Acid Cycle which occurs in the mitochondrial matrix, Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorlyation which occurs in the inner mitochondrial matrix.
43. Citric Acid Cycle
44. Proteins known as Complexes I,II,III,IV, Cytochrome C, and Ubiquione or Q (Lipid)
46. Oxygen is produced from water
47. Sugar is produced from Carbon Dioxide
48. Light reactions occur in the thykaloid membranes, dark reactions occur in the stroma49. M Phase and an interphase consisting of the G1, S, and G2 phase
50. Prophase- Chromosomes condense and spindle apparatus begins to form