Unit 8: psychological perspectives for health and social care
M2: compare two psychological approaches to health and social care service provision.
In this assignment I am going to compare two psychological approaches to health and social care provision. I will be comparing the biological perspective and the cognitive perspective.
The biological perspective is of the belief that all behaviour has a physiological root and is resolute by biology. The things people feel, think, do and say are caused one way or another by electrochemical events happening between and within the neurons that make up the nervous system those in the brain. The biological perspective looks at the biological substrates of behaviour. It focuses on how the brain is structured and how it works. It also relates to behaviour. Arnold Gesell came up with the biological approach; he came up with a theory of maturation. He basically thought that as you are conceived, you will begin to mature according to your genes. Gesell also goes on to say that a baby beginnings to mature as soon as it has been conceived. He also believed that as the child develops from birth onwards, it’s the genes of the child that allows it to grow gradually into the person they are meant to be. He added that the environment should provide support for this unfolding of talents, skills, personality, interest and others but the main thing driving this development is the maturation process. Gesell thought that in the right circumstances we can mature to develop to our full potential this is known as self –actualisation.
The biological theory is similar to the cognitive perspective. The cognitive perspective is about the study of internal intellectual development for instance , awareness ,views using ,language and problem solving the cognitive approach also refers to mental activity including thinking , remembering and learning. Most of the cognitive perspectives illustrates great concerns about how a person recognizes solving problems, and understanding things regarding everyone with intellectual routes that able between stimulus and motivation. The cognitive perspective does not focus on the biology that goes on but about the way the brain processes information. The cognitive perspective was founded by Jean Piaget. Jean Piaget believed that our brains are like computers that are processing information. He said that cognition develops through a series of stages, each one building in on the last. This suggests that as we are growing up the ability of our brains grows too. Although this takes place the ability to process information changes and develops as we age. Piaget came up with four stages of development these are the following:
Sensory-motor (0-2) years: this is said to be when the world is experienced through motor activity and the senses.
Pre-operational (2-7) years: This is said to be when language develops along with memory. The child is selfish and unable to conserve.
Concrete operational(7-11)years: this child can now understand conversation but cannot yet solve problems mentally
Formal operational (11+): The child can now use abstract thoughts and respect problems mentally.
A cognitive scientist called Chomsky, helped to study the mind by studying language in order to interpret behaviour. This was known as cybernetics, the science of communication.
This perspective mainly focuses on how our heredity and genes influence our behaviour. The actions and doings of a human being are believed to be a result of genetic factors. There are three ways that human behaviour can be explained according to this perspective. They are:
Investigation of inheritance
Physiology: The biological study of the way certain organs work and how the brain functions. What change around the individuals behaviour is affected is also determined.
Comparative method: The way in which humans are compared to