1. Describe the purpose of the following organelles or structures within a cell. Include in your discussion whether the organelle is found within plants, animals, or prokaryotes, or a combination thereof:
* Nucleus and nucleolus
* Smooth ER and rough ER
* Golgi apparatus
* Cytoskeleton, including microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules
* Peroxisome and lysosome
* Cell wall
2. A cell is placed in a hypertonic environment. This cell also has a contractile vacuole. Explain what happens to the cell in this environment and the reason for this phenomenon. Next, explain the role of the contractile vacuole in maintaining a healthy cell.
Include in your description: Aquaporins, integral membrane proteins, passive transport, active transport, amphipathic, and lysis.
3. (short answers)
(a) How does an enzyme affect the activation energy of a reaction?
(b) Explain what induced fit describes in the context of protein function.
(c) Explain the two different types of inhibitors
(d) What is the difference between positive and negative feedback inhibition?
4. Starting from a glucose molecule, describe the path the molecule takes in producing ATP, including the processes of glycolysis, krebs cycle, and chemiosmosis. And fermentation!
Include in your response: substrate level phosphorylation, oxidative phosphorylation, fermentation, electron transport chain, proton pump, chemiosmosis, ATP synthase.
5. Explain the process of photosynthesis similar to the above question. Include the light reactions, the dark reactions (calvin cycle), and briefly describe the difference between C3, C4, and CAM plants.
6. (short answers)
(a) Mitosis is the division of the nucleus of a cell. Where in the human body would lots of cells in the process of mitosis be expected found?
(b) What is the purpose of the interphase? Include the G1, S, G2, and G0 phase in your discussion.
(c) Explain the cell cycle control system described in the book with MPF and cyclin in your own words.
(d) What is cancer and what is the relevance of the cell cycle control system to learning how to