Comparing & Contrasting the Four Main Macromolecules The cell, also known as the building blocks of life, is a necessity for any kind of life, but what exactly makes up the cell itself? The cell is like a city, and like every city it needs structures. In a city there are usually buildings, but in a cell the structures inside of it are called organelles. Buildings are made out of bricks, steel, concrete, wood, and other materials, organelles are made out of macromolecules. There are four classes of macromolecules which are: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Although they are all macromolecules they have many similarities as well as differences. Carbohydrates are composed of C(carbon), H(hydrogen), and O(oxygen), in a 1:2:1 ratio. Carbohydrates can be divided into three groups, monosaccharaides (one simple sugar), disaccharides (combination of two simple sugars), and polysaccharides (combination of three or more simple sugars). Monosaccharaides is glucose, disaccharides is sucrose, and polysaccharide is starch. Monosaccharaides and disaccharides have two hydroxide groups bonded to the carbon backbone plus an aldehyde or ketone group, and polysaccharides is made of several covalently bonded monosaccharides. The monosaccharaides and disaccharides, which are smaller carbohydrates, are commonly referred to as sugars. These often end in the suffix –ose while polysaccharide doesn’t. Monosaccharaides and disaccharides come from fruits, sugarcane, sugar bent,…
Presence of Various Macromolecules
Macromolecules are large molecules made up of smaller organic molecules. These four classes are Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic acids. These macromolecules are created by removing water. Carbohydrates are made up of oxygen, hydrogen and carbon. Each macromolecule is made up of smaller organic molecules. For carbohydrates and proteins these smaller molecules are known as monomers. These similar or identical monomers are covalently bonded together to create…
September 26th, 2013Introduction
Macromolecules are molecules such as protein, nucleic acid, or polysaccharide, with a high relative molar mass. There are three major types of macromolecules, which are carbohydrates, nucleic acid and proteins. Carbohydrates are sugars and related compounds with the general formula of CH2O. (Alberts et…
not react with any of the solutes present inside the test tubes. It is included as a test sample because its composition contains no macromolecules.
Biuret Test for Protein- Distilled water, Starch, Glucose, Apple juice
These are the samples in which the color change didn’t occur and it contained no proteins.
Iodine Test for Starch- Distilled water, Albumin, Glucose, milk, whip cream, apple juice, gelatin
These are the samples in which the color change didn’t occur and it doesn’t have any starch in…
• Most large biological molecules are
• An immense diversity of polymers can be
built from just a small set of monomer
• Simple parts build complex structures
Principles of Polymers
• Polymer: a large molecule consisting of many
identical or similar subunits connected together
• Polymer: poly=many; mer=unit or part
• Most biological macromolecules are polymers
• Monomer: unit or building block molecule…
consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms
the chain of carbon atoms that forms the structural backbone of an organic molecule
a chemical reaction in which two molecules are in a covalent bond with the removal of a water molecule
a chemical group consisting of a carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen atom and also bonded to a hydroxyl group
an extensively branched glucose storage polysaccharide found…
known as macromolecules
The architecture of a large biomolecule plays a vital role in the function
5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers
Polymer- long molecule constituting of many similar or identical building blocks linked by covalent bonds
Made up of monomers
The synthesis and breakdown of polymers
Processes are facilitated by enzymes; specialized macromolecules that help speed up chemical reactions
Monomers are connected by a reaction which occurs when they are covalently bonded…
Finding Macromolecules in Food
This experiment was conducted in order to find the presence of a certain macromolecule in a food sample. This was done by using different reagents that would indicate a certain macromolecule present by a color change. The data presented within this lab shows that each reagent gave a color change to a solution, showing whether or not the macromolecule was present in the food item. Each result depended on the actual nutritional…
in the body to produce the cell memebrane. Carbs also store energy and produce hormones
6. Provide examples of monosaccharide, disaccharide and polysaccharide.
Monosaccharides- Glucose- energy for cells.
Galactose- Metabolized and converted to glucose.
Fructose-Fruit sugar, converted to glucose and metabolized.
Sucrose-digested to glucose and fructose, cane sugar. Lactose-Milk sugar. Maltose-Malt sugar.
Polysaccharide- Cellulose-dietary fiber. Starch-energy…
1.3 – Macromolecules
- large molecules composed of repeating sub-units
- Four major classes:
- nucleic acids
- Dehydration Synthesis (Condensation Reaction)
- two subunits linked through the removal of a water molecule
- absorbs energy
- Hydrolysis Reaction
- two subunits break apart by addition of a water molecule
- releases energy
- Food Energy
- healthy body requires about 50…
in this activity.
We will use these indicators:
1) Benedict’s Solution tests for simple sugars (monosaccharides)
2) Lugol’s Iodine Solution tests for starch ( a polysaccharide)
3) Biuret’s Solution tests for protein
HCl (hydrolysis rxn of unknown)
Beaker (400 mL)
Test tube holder