Part A – changes to temperature – animals.
Animal identification of ectotherm
Thorny devil or formally known as (moloch horridus)
Environmental conditions of the thorny devil
The thorny devil is found throughout the arid regions where during the day temperatures saw to above 40 degrees and at night can drop below 0 degrees giving reason for the thorny devils adaptations.(1)
Description Adaptations/responses of thorny devil
The adaptation of having changing pigments in the thorny devils skin helps to regulate internal body temperature. The thorny maintains a stable internal body temperature by changing to a lighter or darker colour as lighter colours which reflect the sun and the darker will absorb more sunlight warmth thus changing body temperature to environmental conditions.(2) A behavioural adaptation of the thorny devil is that it regulates its body temperature by using postural changes for example the way it stands. They can increase body temperature by increasing surface area exposed to the sun for example by lying on rock or decrease its temperature by reducing surface area exposure to the sun thus changing temperature. Another behavioural adaptation is that the thorny devil buries itself with soil to keep itself warm during the night as temperature become unsurvivably cold. (3)
Explanation adaptations/responses of the thorny devil
The changing pigments in the skin of the thorny devil better equips it with a way in which to cope with the harsh arid environment. The thorny devil is usually an olive/brown colour in the mornings as they want to increase body temperature to a normal state due to the decrease in temperature at nights and as the ambient temperature increases as the day continues it changes to a light yellow. The benefit of this adaptation is that it can regulate its own body temperature without expending lots of energy in doing so. Different postures help the thorny devil to maintain a stable internal body temperature. A posture with greater exposure to the sun means that the lizard is attempting to warm up and does so by absorbs the heat from the sun. Reducing exposure to the sun is possible by either standing in a different or retreat to a shady area where it may be cooler thus reducing exposure and regulating body temperature to a normal level.(3) The ability to maintain a stable internal body temperature in such an extreme environment is beneficial for the thorny lizard as it is necessary for survival. Another behavioural adaptation is the horny devil buries itself to keep itself warm at night in the freezing temperatures. The covering of dirt is enough to insulate the lizard from the cold temperatures. This is greatly beneficial as it protects the lizard from freezing temperatures that it cannot cope with. The Thorny devil has these adaptations to cope with the changes in temperature which are needed for survival as cold temperatures can freeze the Thorny devil and hot temperatures can dehydrate the Thorny devil.
Animal identification of endotherm
Emu or scientifically know as (Dromaius novaehollandiae)
Environmental conditions of the Emu
In terms of landscapes, emus are diverse birds. They live in many types of settings, including grasslands, savannahs, eucalyptus forest and plains of deserts. They are uncommon, however, in extremely arid environments, and also in rain forests, thick forests and urban locales. (4)
Description adaptations/responses of the emu
The emu has many ways in which to regulate its body temperature some of which include panting, fanning of wings and number and colour of feathers. The emus can maintain a stable internal body temperature via the response mechanism of panting as an evaporative technique as environmental temperatures change to too warm. Another adaptation for the emu to regulate body temperature is via fanning its small wings in hot temperatures to cool itself. (5) The emu has 2 layers of feathers compared to one layer of