Judaism- First monotheistic religion that believes they have a special connection with god. They dwell in Israel, their promised land. They follow the Ten Commandments, a set of rules given to Moses by god.
Confucianism- Based on the ideas of Confucius. Based on education. He believed that everyone should respect their parents (filial piety). He believed that the key to ending chaos in the world and bringing back peace and order was to find the right kind of leadership. This was in China.
Daoism- Taoists believe that human beings should exist in harmony with nature. The yin-yang represents the good in evil and the evil that is in the good. They didn’t believe in institutions of men, but patience, selflessness, and concern for all.
Buddhism- Discovered by Siddhartha Guatama, he realized that all the world is suffering and if you don’t want to suffer you need to follow the eightfold path which tells how you should live your life. The ultimate goal is to reach Nirvana, or oneness with the universe. Practiced in India.
Christianity- Grew directly out of Judaism and was founded by Jesus. His followers saw him as a messiah and would change the Jewish religion and make it better. It appealed to ordinary people because of this, which is why it is practiced all over the world. Christianity started in the Roman Empire and spread all around the world.
6. Han: Social: Landholding elite held all of the power, Disease.
Political: Political fighting between eunuchs, Confucian scholars and nobles, Government corruption and bribery, Power in the hands of local landholders and governors (decentralization), Because of no centralized power, China was vulnerable. Political and Social: Only wealthy elite could gain political position
Cultural: Challenged by arrival of Buddhism
Economic: Crop failure, flooding -9 million die, Failure to implement land reform
Roman Empire- Social- Invasions from Germanic Tribes, the expansion of slavery, decline in Roman civic