Mamangement OUtline Essay

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Management Outline:
Chapters 7-12

Chapter 7 (pg. 246-
Stress: a feeling of tension that occurs when a person perceives that a situation is about to exceed her ability to cope and consequently could endanger her wellbeing
Job stress: the feeling that one’s capabilities, resources, or needs do not match the demands or requirements of the job
Acute stress: a short-term stress reaction to an immediate threat
Chronic stress: a long-term stress reaction resulting from ongoing situations
Stress response: an unconscious mobilization of energy resources that occurs when the body encounters a stressor
Eustress: a positive stress that results from facing challenges and difficulties with the expectation of achievement
Dystress: negative stress; often referred to simply as stress
Demand control model: a model that suggests that experienced stress is a function of both job demands and job control
Stress is highest when demands are high but individuals have little control over the situation
Job strain is a function of the following two factors: (1) workplace demands faced by an associate or manager (2) the control that an individual has in meeting those demands
Effort reward imbalance model: a model that suggests that experienced stress is a function of both required effort and rewards obtained. Stress is highest when required effort is high but rewards are low
Focused on two factors: (1) the effort required by an associate or manager (2) the rewards an individual receives as a result of the effort
Negative emotions and harmful changes in the autonomic nervous system: (1) limited opportunities in the labor market (2) hope for changes in the situation (3) excessive work-related overcommitment
Stressors: environmental conditions that cause individuals to experience stress

Organizational and Work Related Stressors:
Role conflict: a situation in which different roles lead to conflicting expectations
Role ambiguity: a situation in which goals, expectations, and/or basic job requirements are unclear
People are unsure of what is expected of them and how they will be evaluated
Work overload: common cause of stress in organizations
Can be quantitative (too much work) or qualitative (work is too complex)
Occupation: occupations characterized by high demands and strong required efforts create stress
Resource inadequacy: makes it difficult to accomplish tasks
Working conditions: if working conditions are unpleasant it can be stressful
Management style
Monitoring: when organizations keep track of employees computer usage, employees feel stressed and like they must always “be on”
Job insecurity: unemployment rate increased in the early part of the 21st century
Invincibility in the workplace: slightly deviant behavior with ambiguous intent to harm another person
Behavior is not overtly aggressive, physical, or violent the perpetrator behaves in a way so that he or she can deny the intent to harm someone else
Ie. Someone talking on their cellphone too loudly
Type A personality: a personality type characterized by competitiveness, aggressiveness, and impatience
Type B: more laid back, less competitive
Hardiness: a personality dimension corresponding to a strong internal commitment to activities, an internal locus of control, and challenge seeking
Ie. Individuals who are high in hardiness tend to have a strong internal commitment to their activities, have an internal locus of control, and seek challenge in everyday life
Gender: women seek emotional social support (comfort and a shoulder to lean on), women are exposed to more stressors in the workplace then men

Individual and organizational consequences of stress:
Individual: psychological consequences, behavioral consequences, and physiological consequences
Psychological: anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, sleeplessness, frustration, family problems, burnout
Burnout: a condition of physical or emotional exhaustion generally brought about