1. Fundamental Attribution Error= over estimate dispositional (internal) underestimate environment (external) of others failures.
2. Power= is the capacity to produce effects on others or the potential to influence others.
3. Gestures of Power=
Sitting behind a desk
Point at people
4. Influence= is the degree of actual change in a target person’s attitudes, values, beliefs or behaviors.
5. Influence Tactics=
1. Rational Persuasion=occurs when am agent uses logical arguments or factual evidence to influence others.
2. Inspirational Appeal= when they make a request or proposal designed to arouse enthusiasm or emotions in targets.
3. Consultation= occurs when agents ask targets to participate in planning an activity. Why its important (commitment)
4. Ingratiation= occurs when an agent attempts to get you in a good mood before making a request.
5. Personal Appeals= when they ask another to do a favor out of friendship.
6. Exchange= the beginning of a personal appeal, whereas influencing a target through the exchange of favors.
7. Coalition Tactics= differ from consultation in that they are used when agents seek the aid or support of others to influence the target.
8. Pressure Tactics= threats or persistent reminders used to influence targets.
9. Legitimize Tactics= occurs when agents make requests based on their position or authority.
Ethical and Legalizing is not linked.
6. Good Leader= is the process of influencing an organization toward producing goals. It’s complex/situational. Both a science and art. Rational= goal setting/decision making and emotional. Do the right things (flexibility, creative). Maintain positive relationships with authority. Type A personality (recognize). Wants to be visible different from followers. Have to be willing to do administrative tests. Good leadership depends on the followers. Ethical view. Set the tone/example/moral. It’s a process. Leaders innovate, develop, inspire, long-term view, ask what and why, originate, and challenge the status quo. Trust, Vision, and Consistency
7. Good Manager= suggests words like efficiency, planning, paperwork, procedures, regulations, control, and consistency. Managers administer, maintain, control, have short-term views, ask how and when, imitate, and accept the status quo. Used in Western time (set an objective for a year and tied a budget. Look at variances.) Never make good decisions (time, information, and T-Charts). Do things right
8. LEADERS AND MANAGERS NOT MUTUALLY EXCLUSIVE!
9. Quantitative Research= Numbers
10. Qualitative Research= Surveys. Reads and interprets. Opinions.
11. Cross-Sectional Research= fewer data points. Predictions made for future events based on research at the time.
12. Longitudinal Research= A lot of data points. Better. Expensive. Research is evaluated after the time period ends.
13. Lab Research= Not translatable to the outside world. College students.
14. Field Research= is the collection of information outside of a laboratory, library or workplace setting. The approaches and methods used in field research varies across disciplines. For example, biologists who conduct field research may simply observe animals interacting with their environments, whereas social scientists conducting field research may interview or observe people in their natural environments to learn their languages, folklore, and social structures. Field research involves a range of well-defined, although variable, methods: informal interviews, direct observation, participation in the life of the group, collective discussions, analyses of personal documents produced within the group, self-analysis, results from activities undertaken off- or on-line, and life-histories. Although the method generally is characterized as qualitative research, it may (and often does) include quantitative dimensions.
15. Lord Actens Quote= “Power corrupts, absolute power corrupts absolutely”