1. Explain the validity of one process and one content theory of motivation and assess their applicability to scenarios that exist within Scotia Airways.
According to Maslow, the above pyramid illustrates the needs of the workers.
In brief, they are simply divided into the following factors:
The PHYSICAL factor: * A person starts at the bottom of the hierarchy and will initially seek to satisfy basic needs (e.g. food, water). * Once these physiological needs have been satisfied, they are no longer a motivator. The individual moves up to the next level.
The SECURITY factor: * Safety needs at work could include physical safety (e.g. protective clothing) as well as protection against unemployment, loss of income through sickness etc.
The SOCIAL factor: * Social needs recognise that most people want to belong to a group. These would include the need for love and belonging (e.g. teamwork, communication).
The EGO factor: * Esteem needs are about being given recognition for a job well done. They reflect the fact that many people seek the esteem and respect of others. A promotion at work might achieve this.
The SELF-ACTUALISATION factor: * Self-actualisation is about how people think about themselves – this is often measured by the extent of success or challenge at work.
The Scotia Airways employs the same management team from 1996. Also most of staff have remained with the business as it has grown through the years. A culture of trust has been emphasised and developed by both the management and workers what enhance the effectiveness, efficiency and overall performance of the business. This leads to positive working relationship within and between different departments. Also this has been increased by positive management ways and reward policies that were agreed and supported by Trade Union representatives. In the Scotia Airways much of the success of the business has been founded on the development and robust application of policies and procedures. Also the company promote social harmony and integration within the workplace. In addition, the Scotia Airways is very much regarded as a family-style business.
Referring to the Maslow’s hierarchy of needs the basic needs and social needs are provided: * Physological needs – basic pay, holiday pay, sick pay * Safety needs – medical insurance, job security, financial reserves, working in a safe area * Love/belonging needs - work groups, teamwork * Esteem needs - respect, prestige, recognition, reputation, attention * Self-actualization - the goal of self-actualization is hard to define. The concept offers a variety of interpretations, because it differs based on each person.
Equity theory states that in return for an input of skills, effort or production, the employee receives an outcome expressed in terms of any combination of salary, status and fringe benefits.
The Scotia Airways employs the same management and staff from few years. This means that the effort which staff put to achieve goals is equal to the output which they receive.
Reffering to Equal theory the epmloyees in Scotia Airways are mitivated to do their job. They have the appropriate skills and work hard to achive goals, because they are treated equily in order to wages and bonuses. They trust in their management and boss. The employees in return for the their work receive wide ranging reward, interest, responsibility and benefits.
2. Given the range and complexity of challenges faced by the management of Scotia Airways, summarise methods that could be implemented to improve job performance and justify how each provides added value to the organisation.
The Scotia Airways should take into consideration individual differences that may affect for job performance such as: * Ability – relates to the requirements to perform