What is Management?
Put simply, management is the process of organising, planning, leading and controlling resources within an entity with the overall aim of achieving its objectives (Terry, 1968). This basic principal can then be implemented within an organisation (be it profit or non-profit), business or institution in order to come up with a broader more relevant definition.
The function that coordinates the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. According to there are several different resource types within management (Koontz, 1930). Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of; financial resources, human resources, natural resources and technological resources.
Let’s take a look at the management dynamics of Tesco - one of the world’s largest multinational grocery and general merchandise retailers.
Tesco’s Organisational Structure.
Tesco has what is referred to as having a hierarchical structure because it has a lot of layers and a lot of people reporting into more than one person before that information get to the boss.
A hierarchical structure has many levels. Each level is controlled by one person. A hierarchical company tends to be a very big company. Instructions are generally passed down from one person to another until it gets to the bottom of the hierarchical structure. If there was a problem in a hierarchical structure it would move up through the structure again from one person to another until it gets to where it is supported to be.
Strengths of a Hierarchical structure are that there is a close control of workers. Workers in Tesco will know exactly what they have to do so they don’t wait around until they are told.
Levels of Management in Tesco.
An organisation like Tesco typically has three levels of management that are;
Top-level managers are responsible for controlling and overseeing the entire organisation.
Middle-level managers are responsible for executing organisational plans which comply with the company's policies. These managers act at an intermediary between top-level management and low-level management.
Low-level managers focus on controlling and directing. They serve as role models for the employees they supervise.
A diagram illustrating the different levels of management within an organisation like Tesco.
This is a term used to describe the behaviour of people who are part of an organisation and the meanings that the people attach to their actions within the organisation. Management culture entails the attitude, experience, beliefs, psychology and values both personal and cultural values of an organisation (Brown, 1995). It's a shared value, a way of life that colleagues in the work place relate to one another and how they interact with the outside world like clients and shareholders. It is also the pattern of such collective behaviours and assumptions that are taught to new organisational members as a way of perceiving, and even thinking and feeling, “the way we do things around here” (Lundy & Cowling 1996),
Management culture refers to culture in any type of organisation be it school, university, not-for-profit groups, government agencies or business entities. In business, terms such as corporate culture and company culture are sometimes used to refer to a similar concept.
Exercising good management culture should make an organisation function more effectively and efficiently.
Management Culture within an Organisation.
Taking a company like Tesco as a case study for management culture;
Management culture is an integral part of life within an organisation. You could describe it as the personality of a company, firm, co-operation, or any kind of a business - a common perception of the members of an organisation.
Some aspects of management culture;
Historical: Culture in an organisation that is based on…