Management Test Essay example

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Test Review for Management Final

Chapter 11 1.) What are the primary functions of the communication process in organizations?
Communication: The transfer and understanding of meaning.
The main functions are control, motivation, emotional expression, and information.
Control: guidelines for employees to follow, formal guidelines, comply with company policies.
Motivation: what employees must do, how well they are doing it, and how they can improve if performance is subpar.
Emotional Expression: feelings and fulfillment of social needs. Show satisfaction and frustration.
Information: individuals and groups need to make decisions by transmitting the data needed to identify and evaluate choices.
Exhibit 11.1 The Communication Process Sender Receiver
Message to be sent Encoding Channel Message Message Message Noise Received Decoding Feedback
2.) What are the key parts of the communication process, and how do you distinguish formal and informal communication?
Communication Process: The steps between a source and a receiver that result in the transfer and understanding of meaning.
Formal Channels – Communication channels established by an organization to transmit messages related to the professional activities of members.
Informal Channels – Communication channels that are created spontaneously and that emerge as responses to individual choices.

3.) What are the differences among downward, upward, and lateral communication?
Downward Communication: communication that flows from one level of a group or organization to a lower level. Group leaders and managers use it to assign goals, provide job instructions, explain policies, and procedures, point out problems that need attention, and offer feedback about performance.
Upward Communication: Flows to a higher level in the group or organization. It is used to provide feedback to higher-ups, inform them of progress toward goals, and relay current problems.
Lateral Communication: Communication takes place among members of the same work group, members of work groups at the same level, managers at the same level, or any other horizontally equivalent workers.

Chapter 14
1 & 3) What is conflict? What are the steps of the conflict process?
Conflict: A process that begins when one party perceives that another party has negatively affected, or is about to negatively affect, something that the first party cares about.
The conflict process has five stages: potential opposition or incompatibility, cognition and personalization, intentions, behavior, and outcomes.
Exhibit 14-1 (good examples of each) P. 450

4.) What is Negotiation?
A process that occurs when two or more parties decide how to allocate scarce resources. Two or more parties exchange goods or services and attempt to agree on the exchange rate for them.

6.) What are the five steps in the negotiation process? 1. Preparation and planning 2. Definition of ground rules 3. Clarification and justification 4. Bargaining and problem solving 5. Closure and implementation

Chapter 15
1.) What are the six key elements that define an organization’s structure?
Organizational Structure: The way in which job tasks are formally divided, grouped, and coordinated. 1. Work Specialization 2. Departmentalization 3. Chain of Command 4. Span of Control 5. Centralization and Decentralization 6. Formalization

2.) What is a bureaucracy, and how does it differ from a simple structure?
Bureaucracy: An organization structure with highly routine operating tasks achieved through specialization, very formalized rules and regulations, tasks that are grouped into functional departments, centralized authority, narrow spans of control, and decision making that follows the chain of command.
Simple Structure: An organization structure characterized by a low degree of