There is a professor in culture and Social science doctor who name Geert Hofstede. He conducted investigation, analysis, and comparison between the world more than 50 national cultures. In the international academic field, He is regarded as the study of how the cultural differences and cultural differences affect the authority of management strategy.
Geert Hofstede first published the book named Culture’s Consequence: International Difference in Work-Related Values, and he did the research findings to provide the one framework for realizing the wide-range management meanings in national cultures(Schermerhorn as cited in Geert Hofstede 2011 P125). According to the ‘Hofstede's Contribution to Cultural Differences’ (2011), its contribution in the nation cultures could help businessmen and traveler to understand and recognize the intercultural differences between countries preferably. Although he didn’t consider the conception that a county could have a variety of cultures and the theory maybe was affected by the researchers who comes from the America and Europe (Molina 2005).
This essay is describing the facts and the effects of Hofstede’s theories in the culture area.
Tissue culture should be distinguished from the national culture. The national cultures distinguish the similar people, institutions and organizations in different countries. Tissue culture, he used the word, distinguish between different tissues in the same country or countries. Cultures show from shallow to deep in symbols, heroes, ceremony and values. His research shows that organizational culture is mainly different in symbolic level, the hero and the ceremony, together with the labeled "practice", the national culture difference is mainly in the deeper level, value level. Therefore, multinational study identified five dimensions of national culture, based on values, not suitable for the comparison of tissue in the same country. National culture belongs to the culture of the organization sociology anthropology.
(1) The individualism and collectivism
Reflects the culture of individualism and collectivism level is different for different social collective attitude.
(2) The right gap
The gap between rights in organization management often connects degree of centralization, leadership and decision making together.
(3) The uncertainty avoidance
Uncertainty avoidance tendency affects an organization to make its activities structured to the degree is also affect an organization's attitude to risk.
(4) The values of masculinity versus femininity
The values of the culture, two dimensions of masculinity versus femininity and long-term orientation in different degree influence to the management decision mode.
(5) Long-term orientation and short-term orientation
Long term oriented culture focus on the future, pay attention to saving, thrift and reserve. Doing nothing leave some leeway. Such as Japan, countries with long-term vision to investment, the annual profit is not important. He most important is progress in order to achieve a long-term goal. In the short term oriented culture, values are the trend of the past and present. People respect the tradition, show concern for the performance of social responsibilities, but here is the most important. In the management of the most important is this profit, superior to subordinate performance appraisal cycle is short, requirements have an immediate effect, quick success, not delay. Such as the United States, the company pays more attention to the quarterly and annual profit results, management attention to profit in performance evaluation of staff year by year or by season in.There are other frameworks:
Denison organizational culture model, it’s one of the most popular method of