Adams appointed various Federalists to the judiciary branch. Leading to the single most significant case of the Supreme Court, Marbury Vs. Madison, a struggle between Republicans and Federalists that would end with a decision. This controversial landmark case established the constitution as the “Supreme law” of the United States and developed the power of the Supreme Court, enhancing its independence and the precedent it set in the United States.
The most significant short-term effect of the decision made in Marbury v. Madison was the fact that it greatly magnified the court's authority and opinion, though it can be debated that this is also a long-term effect. Another short-term effect is the fact that the decision was a major slap at the Jeffersonians, who were very eager to prevent such a thing and to remove any traces of a Federalist influence in court, despite the fact that Jefferson had flip-flopped on his political views several times later on. As a result of that, the Jeffersonians attempted to impeach Samuel Chase, a Federalist judge serving on the Supreme Court, because he spoke out against the Republicans. Though he was found not guilty of the charges brought against him that included both high crimes and misdemeanors, he became deeply unpopular and scorned by the public. The short-term effects of the decision in Madison v. Marbury were certainly important, however, the long-term effects certainly outweigh them.
Chief Justice John Marshall established the power of judicial review: the power of the Court not only to interpret the constitutionality of a law or statute but also to carry out the process and enforce its decision. This lasted after this case which is what makes it so important. It establishes the power of judicial review and sets